Nurse educator conferences on nursing theory

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Nurse educator conferences on nursing theory

Significant Events in Theory Development in Nursing Event Year
Significant Events in Theory Development in Nursing Event Year

Nightingale publishes Notes on Nursing 1859 American Medical Association advocates formal training for nurses 1868 Teacher’s College—Columbia University—Doctorate in Education degree for nursing 1920 Yale University begins the first collegiate school of nursing 1924 Report by Dr. Esther Brown—“Nursing for the Future” 1948 State licensure for registration becomes standard 1949 Nursing Research first published 1950 H. Peplau publishes Interpersonal Relations in Nursing 1952 University of Pittsburgh begins the first doctor of philosophy (PhD) program in nursing 1954 Health Amendments Act passes—funds graduate nursing education 1956 Process of theory development discussed among nursing scholars (works published by Abdellah, Henderson, Orlando, Wiedenbach, and others)

1960– 1966

First symposium on Theory Development in Nursing (published in Nursing Research in 1968) 1967 Symposium Theory Development in Nursing 1968 Dickoff, James, and Wiedenbach—“Theory in a Practice Discipline” First Nursing Theory Conference 1969 Second Nursing Theory Conference 1970 Third Nursing Theory Conference 1971 National League for Nursing adopts Requirement for Conceptual Framework for Nursing Curricula


Key articles publish in Nursing Research (Hardy—Theories: Components, Development, and Evaluation; Jacox—Theory Construction in Nursing; and Johnson—Development of Theory)


Nurse educator conferences on nursing theory 1975, 1978

Advances in Nursing Science first published 1979 Books written for nurses on how to critique theory, develop theory, and apply nursing theory 1980s Graduate schools of nursing develop courses on how to analyze and apply theory in nursing 1980s Research studies in nursing identify nursing theories as frameworks for study 1980s Publication of numerous books on analysis, application, evaluation, and development of nursing theories


Philosophy and philosophy of science courses offered in doctoral programs 1990s Increasing emphasis on middle range and practice theories for nursing 1990s Nursing literature describes the need to establish interconnections among central nursing concepts


Introduction of evidence-based practice into nursing 1990s Philosophy of Nursing first published 1999 Books published describing, analyzing, and discussing application of middle range theory and evidence-based practice


Introduction of the doctor of nursing practice (DNP) 2004 Growing emphasis on development of situation-specific and middle range theories in nursing 2010+


Attention to theory utilization and development of theories to guide nursing research, practice, education, and administration


Focus on clinical application of evidence-based practice, practice-based evidence, and translational research


Sources: Alligood (2014a); Chinn and Kramer (2015); Donahue (2011); Kalisch and Kalisch (2004); Meleis (2012); Moody (1990).

Beginning in the early 1950s, efforts to represent nursing theoretically produced broad conceptualizations of nursing practice. These conceptual models or frameworks proliferated during the 1960s and 1970s. Although the conceptual models were not developed using traditional scientific research processes, they did provide direction for nursing by focusing on a general ideal of practice that served as a guide for research and education. Table 2-4 lists the works of many of the nursing theorists and the titles and year of key theoretical publications. The works of a number of the major theorists are discussed in Chapters 7 through 9. Reference lists and bibliographies outlining application of their work to research, education, and practice are described in those chapters.

Table 2-4 Chronology of Publications of Selected Nursing Theorists Theorist Year Title of Theoretical Writings

Florence Nightingale 1859 Notes on Nursing Hildegard Peplau 1952 Interpersonal Relations in Nursing Virginia Henderson 1955 Principles and Practice of Nursing, 5th edition

1966 The Nature of Nursing: A Definition and Its Implications for Practice, Research, and Education

1991 The Nature of Nursing: Reflections After 25 Years Dorothy Johnson 1959 “A Philosophy of Nursing”

1980 “The Behavioral System Model for Nursing” Faye Abdellah 1960 Patient-Centered Approaches to Nursing

1968 2nd edition Ida Jean Orlando 1961 The Dynamic Nurse–Patient Relationship Ernestine Wiedenbach 1964 Clinical Nursing: A Helping Art Lydia E. Hall 1964 Nursing: What Is It? Joyce Travelbee 1966 Interpersonal Aspects of Nursing

1971 2nd edition Myra E. Levine 1967 The Four Conservation Principles of Nursing

1973 Introduction to Clinical Nursing 1996 “The Conservation Principles of Nursing: A Retrospective”

Martha Rogers 1970 An Introduction to the Theoretical Basis of Nursing 1980 “Nursing: A Science of Unitary Man” 1983 Science of Unitary Human Being: A Paradigm for Nursing 1989 “Nursing: A Science of Unitary Human Beings”

Dorothea E. Orem 1971 Nursing: Concepts of Practice 1980 2nd edition 1985 3rd edition 1991 4th edition 1995 5th edition


2001 6th edition 2011 Self-Care Science, Nursing Theory and Evidence-Based Practice

(Taylor and Renpenning) Imogene M. King 1971 Toward a Theory for Nursing: General Concepts of Human

Behavior 1981 A Theory for Nursing: Systems, Concepts, Process 1989 “King’s General Systems Framework and Theory”

Betty Neuman 1974 “The Betty Neuman Health-Care Systems Model: A Total Person Approach to Patient Problems”

1982 The Neuman Systems Model 1989 2nd edition 1995 3rd edition 2002 4th edition 2011 5th edition

Evelyn Adam 1975 A Conceptual Model for Nursing 1980 To Be a Nurse 1991 2nd edition

Callista Roy 1976 Introduction to Nursing: An Adaptation Model 1980 “The Roy Adaptation Model” 1984 Introduction to Nursing: An Adaptation Model, 2nd edition 1991 The Roy Adaptation Model 1999 2nd edition 2009 3rd edition

Josephine Paterson and Loretta Zderad

1976 Humanistic Nursing

Jean Watson 1979 Nursing: The Philosophy and Science of Caring 1985 Nursing: Human Science and Human Care 1989 Watson’s Philosophy and Theory of Human Caring in Nursing 1999 Human Science and Human Care 2006 Caring Science as Sacred Science 2012 Human Caring Science: A Theory of Nursing, 2nd edition

Margaret A. Newman 1979 Theory Development in Nursing 1983 Newman’s Health Theory 1986 Health as Expanding Consciousness 2000 2nd edition

Madeleine Leininger 1980 Caring: A Central Focus of Nursing and Health Care Services 1988 “Leininger’s Theory of Nursing: Cultural Care Diversity and

Universality” 2001 Culture Care Diversity and Universality 2006 2nd edition 2015 3rd edition (Edited by M. R. McFarland and H. B. Wehbe-

Alamah) Joan Riehl Sisca 1980 The Riehl Interaction Model


1989 2nd edition Rosemary Parse 1981 Man-Living-Health: A Theory for Nursing

1985 Man-Living-Health: A Man-Environment Simultaneity Paradigm 1987 Nursing Science: Major Paradigms, Theories, Critiques 1989 “Man-Living-Health: A Theory of Nursing” 1999 Illuminations: The Human Becoming Theory in Practice and

Research Joyce Fitzpatrick 1983 A Life Perspective Rhythm Model

1989 2nd edition Helen Erickson et al. 1983 Modeling and Role Modeling Nancy Roper, Winifred Logan, and Alison Tierney

1980 The Elements of Nursing

1985 2nd edition 1996 The Elements of Nursing: A Model for Nursing Based on a

Model of Living 2000 Roper-Logan-Tierney Model of Nursing

Patricia Benner and Judith Wrubel

1984 From Novice to Expert: Excellence and Power in Clinical Nursing Practice

1989 The Primacy of Caring: Stress and Coping in Health and Illness Anne Boykin and Savina Schoenhofer

1993 Nursing as Caring

2001 2nd edition Barbara Artinian 1997 The Intersystem Model: Integrating Theory and Practice

2011 2nd edition Brendan McCormack and Tanya McCance

2010 Person-Centred Nursing: Theory and Practice

Sources: Chinn and Kramer (2015); Hickman (2011); Hilton (1997).

Classification of Theories in Nursing Over the last 40 years, a number of methods for classifying theory in nursing have been described. These include classification based on range/scope or abstractness (grand or macrotheory to practice or situation- specific theory) and type or purpose of the theory (descriptive, predictive, or prescriptive theory). Both of these classification schemes are discussed in the following sections.

Scope of Theory One method for classification of theories in nursing that has become common is to differentiate theories based on scope, which refers to complexity and degree of abstraction. The scope of a theory includes its level of specificity and the concreteness of its concepts and propositions. This classification scheme typically uses the terms metatheory, philosophy, or worldview to describe the philosophical basis of the discipline; grand theory or macrotheory to describe the comprehensive conceptual frameworks; middle range or midrange theory to describe frameworks that are relatively more focused than the grand theories; and situation-specific theory, practice theory, or microtheory to describe those smallest in scope (Higgins & Moore, 2000; Peterson, 2017; Whall, 2016). Theories differ in complexity and scope along a continuum from practice or situation-specific theories to grand theories. Figure 2-1 compares the scope of nursing theory by level of abstractness.

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