Leading Motivation Theories Theory Summary of Motivation Requirements

  • Post category:Nursing
  • Reading time:9 mins read
  • Post author:

Leading Motivation Theories Theory Summary of Motivation Requirements

Leading Motivation Theories Theory Summary of Motivation Requirements
Leading Motivation Theories Theory Summary of Motivation Requirements

Order a Leading Motivation Theories Theory Summary of Motivation Requirements paper today!

Maslow, 1954 Categories of Need: Lower needs (listed first below) must be fulfilled before others are activated. Physiological Safety Belongingness Esteem Self-actualization

Herzberg, 1959 Two factors that influence motivation. The absence of hygiene factors can create job dissatisfaction, but their presence does not motivate or increase satisfaction.

1. Hygiene factors: Company policy, supervision, interpersonal relations, working conditions, salary 2. Motivators: Achievement, recognition, the work itself, responsibility, advancement

McClelland, 1961

Motivation results from three dominant needs. Usually all three needs are present in each individual but vary in importance depending on the position a person has in the workplace. Needs are also shaped over time by culture and experience.

1. Need for achievement: Performing tasks on a challenging and high level 2. Need for affiliation: Good relationships with others 3. Need for power: Being in charge

Source: Adapted from Hersey, P., & Campbell, R. (2004). Leadership: A behavioral science approach. Calif.: Leadership Studies Publishing.

3663_Chapter 1_0003-0016.indd 63663_Chapter 1_0003-0016.indd 6 9/15/2014 4:36:37 PM9/15/2014 4:36:37 PM Process CyanProcess CyanProcess MagentaProcess MagentaProcess YellowProcess YellowProcess BlackProcess Black

chapter 1 ■ Leadership and Followership 7 The key is to marry the readiness of the follower with the tasks at hand. “Readiness is defined as the extent to which a follower demonstrates the ability and willingness to accomplish a specific task” (Hersey & Campbell, 2004, p. 114). “The leader needs to spell out the duties and responsibilities of the individual and the group” (Hersey & Campbell, 2004).

Followers’ readiness levels can range from unable, unwilling, and insecure to able, willing, and confi- dent. The leader’s behavior will focus on appropri- ately fulfilling the followers’ needs, which are identified by their readiness level and the task. Leader behaviors will range from telling, guid- ing, and directing to delegating, observing, and monitoring.

Where did you fall in this model during your first clinical rotation? Compare this with where you are now. In the beginning, the clinical instructor gave you clear instructions, closely guiding and directing you. Now, she or he is most likely delegat- ing, observing, and monitoring. As you move into your first nursing position, you may return to the needing, guiding, and directing stage. But, you may soon become a leader/instructor for new nursing students, guiding and directing them.

Transformational Leadership Although the situational theories were an improve- ment over earlier theories, there was still something missing. Meaning, inspiration, and vision were not given enough attention (Tappen, 2001). These are the distinguishing features of transformational leadership.

The transformational theory of leadership emphasizes that people need a sense of mission that goes beyond good interpersonal relationships or an appropriate reward for a job well done (Bass & Avolio, 1993). This is especially true in nursing. Caring for people, sick or well, is the goal of the profession. Most people chose nursing in order to do something for the good of humankind; this is their vision. One responsibility of nursing leader- ship is to help nurses see how their work helps them achieve their vision.

Transformational leaders can communicate their vision in a manner that is so meaningful and excit- ing that it reduces negativity (Leach, 2005) and inspires commitment in the people with whom they work (Trofino, 1995). Dr. Martin Luther King Jr. had a vision for America: “I have a dream that

one day my children will be judged by the content of their character, not the color of their skin” (quoted by Blanchard & Miller, 2007, p. 1). A great leader shares his or her vision with his followers. You can do the same with your colleagues and team. If suc- cessful, the goals of the leader and staff will “become fused, creating unity, wholeness, and a collective purpose” (Barker, 1992, p. 42). See Box 1-1 for an example of a leader with visionary goals.

Moral Leadership A series of highly publicized corporate scandals redirected attention to the values and ethics that underlie the practice of leadership as well as that of patient care (Dantley, 2005). Moral leadership involves deciding how one ought to remain honest, fair, and socially responsible (Bjarnason & LaSala, 2011) under any circumstances. Caring about one’s patients and the people who work for you as people as well as employees (Spears & Lawrence, 2004) is part of moral leadership. This can be a great chal- lenge in times of limited financial resources.

Molly Benedict was a team leader on the acute geri- atric unit (AGU) when a question of moral leader- ship arose. Faced with large budget cuts in the middle of the year and feeling a little desperate to f igure out how to run the AGU with fewer staff, her nurse manager suggested that reducing the time that unlicensed assistive personnel (UAP) spent ambulating patients would enable UAPs to care for 15 patients, up from the current 10 per UAP.

This is leadership on the very grandest scale. BHAGs are Big, Hairy, Audacious Goals. Coined by Jim Collins, BHAGs are big ideas, visions for the future. Here is an example: Gigi Mander, originally from the Philippines, dreams of buying hundreds of acres of farmland for peasant families in Asia or Africa. She would install irrigation systems, provide seed and modern farming equipment, and help them market their crops. This is not just a dream, however; she has a business plan for her BHAG and is actively seeking investors. Imagination, creativity, planning, persistence, audacity, courage: these are all needed to put a BHAG into practice. Do you have a BHAG? How would you make it real?

box 1-1

BHAGs, Anyone?

Adapted from Buchanan, L. (2012). The world needs big ideas. INC Magazine, 34(9), 57–58.

3663_Chapter 1_0003-0016.indd 73663_Chapter 1_0003-0016.indd 7 9/15/2014 4:36:37 PM9/15/2014 4:36:37 PM Process CyanProcess CyanProcess MagentaProcess MagentaProcess YellowProcess YellowProcess BlackProcess Black

8 unit 1 ■ Professional Considerations

“George,” responded Molly, “you know that inactiv- ity has many harmful effects, from emboli to disori- entation, in our very elderly population. Let’s try to f igure out how to encourage more self-care and even family involvement in care so the UAPs can still have time to walk patients and prevent their becom- ing nonambulatory.”

Molly based her action on important values, par- ticularly those of providing the highest quality care possible. Stewart and colleagues (2012) urge that caring not be sacrificed at the altar of efficiency (p. 227). This example illustrates how great a chal- lenge that can be for today’s nurse leaders. The American Nurses Association Code of Ethics (2001) provides the moral compass for nursing practice and leadership (ANA, 2001; Bjarnason & LaSala, 2011).

Box 1-2 summarizes a contemporary list of 13 distinctive leadership styles, most of which match up to the eight theories just discussed.

Caring Leadership Caring leadership in nursing comes from two primary sources: servant leadership and emotional

intelligence in the management literature, and caring as a foundational value in nursing (Green- leaf, 2008; McMurry, 2012; Rhodes, Morris, & Lazenby, 2011; Spears, 2010). While it is uniquely suited to nursing leadership, it is hard to imagine any situation in which an uncaring leader would be preferred over a caring leader.

Servant-leaders choose to serve first and lead second, making sure that people’s needs within the work setting are met (Greenleaf, 2008). Emotion- ally intelligent leaders are especially aware of not only their own feelings but others’ feelings as well (see Box 1-1). Combining these leadership and management theories and the philosophy of caring in nursing, you can see that caring leadership is fundamentally people-oriented. The following are the characteristics and behaviors of caring leaders:

■ They respect their coworkers as individuals. ■ They listen to other people’s opinions and

preferences, giving them full consideration. ■ They maintain awareness of their own and

others’ feelings. ■ They empathize with others, understanding

their needs and concerns. ■ They develop their own and their team’s

capacities. ■ They are competent, both in leadership and in

clinical practice. This includes both knowledge and skill in leadership and clinical practice.

As you can see, caring leadership cuts across the leadership theories discussed so far and encom- passes some of their best features. An authoritarian leader, for example, can be as caring as a democratic leader (Dorn, 2011). Caring leadership is attractive to many nurses because it applies many of the prin- ciples of working with patients and working with nursing staff to the interdisciplinary team.