WU Autism Essay

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WU Autism Essay

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Nursing homework help

 

Consider the earlier example of short-term memory loss: of entering a room and forgetting your reason for doing so. Also consider distortions of perception and attention from last week.

Individuals can experience difficulty recognizing an object, focusing their attention, or maintaining their short-term memories. Such examples are routine: they occur among many individuals whose brain function resides within the realm of “normal.”

Consider the potential effects on perception, attention, and short-term memory function by damage to different areas of the brain. Also consider the notion that these processes are core elements of higher-level cognitive functions such as language, capacity for abstract thought, and ability to construct plans. These critical brain activities depend on perception, attention, and memory.

For this Assignment, you explore effects of psychological and traumatic conditions on cognitive functioning.

The Assignment: 

  • Select one of the following conditions: Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD), traumatic brain injury, stroke, or autism.
  • Explain the nature of the conditions in terms of the following cognitive functions: perception, attention, and short-term memory.
  • Explain effects of medications or other strategies to address one or more of these cognitive functions.

Support your Assignment with at least five original, peer-reviewed sources, in addition to any course material used in its preparation. You are to provide a reference list for all resources, including those in the Learning Resources for this course.

References;

Baddeley, A. (2003). Working memory: Looking back and looking forward. Nature Reviews Neuroscience, 4(10), 829–839.

Richmond, L. L., Morrison, A. B., Chein, J. M., & Olson, I. R. (2011). Working memory training and transfer in older adults. Psychology and Aging, 26(4), 813–822.

Jonides, J., Lewis, R. L., Nee, D. E., Lustig, C. A., Berman, M. G., & Moore, K. S. (2008). The mind and brain of short-term memory. Annual Review of Psychology59, 193–224.
Jonides, J., Lewis, R. L., Nee, D. E., Lustig, C. A., Berman, M. G., & Moore, K. S. , The mind and brain of short-term memory, Annual Review of Psychology. Copyright 2007 Annual Reviews, Inc. Used with permission from Annual Reviews, Inc. via the Copyright Clearance Center.

Introduction Welcome to the Interactive Brain! Throughout this course, you access the interactive diagram as a means to explore new concepts in a concrete manner. The diagram illustrates physical aspects of perception, attention, memory, decision-making, problem solving, and other cognitive processes examined in this course. Explore the brain with your mouse for a deeper look at the inner workings of the brain Week 1: Lobes of the Brain Occipital Lobe The occipital lobe is specialized for vision. Cortical areas involved in the processing and recognition of visual images are located here. Parietal Lobe The parietal lobe contains the somatosensory cortex as well as cortical areas involved in visualspatial processing and visual attention. Temporal Lobe The temporal lobe includes cortical areas essential for visual object recognition and categorization, as well as the auditory cortex, and areas related to language comprehension. Frontal Lobe The frontal lobe is the seat of the motor cortex as well as higher cognitive functions such as working memory, language production, decision making, and planning. Week 2: Perception & Attention Primary Visual Cortex Neurons in the primary visual cortex represent the features of visual images. Individual neurons are activated by specific colors, stimulus edges of a particular orientation, or direction of motion. The visual cortex represents a map of the visual scene. Primary Somatosensory Cortex The primary somatosensory cortex is activated by touch. It contains a precise map of the body laid across the surface of the cortex with the legs at the midline (top of the picture) and the face in the ventral surface of the brain (bottom part in the picture). Primary Auditory Cortex Neurons in the primary auditory cortex decompose sounds based on their frequencies; individual neurons are activated by high or low tones. Posterior Parietal Cortex The posterior parietal cortex, particularly of the right brain hemisphere, is specialized for the guidance of attention. Visual Association Cortex Activity of neurons in the visual association cortex is powerfully modulated depending on where attention is focused, the object being attended, or features being attended. Multimodal Association Cortex Neurons in the multimodal association cortex extract and represent more complex features of stimuli, including combined information from multiple senses. Week 3: Short-Term Memory Posterior Parietal Cortex Neurons in the posterior parietal cortex are active during the maintenance of spatial information in working memory. Inferior Temporal Cortex Neurons in the inferior temporal cortex are active during the maintenance of object information in working memory. Prefrontal Cortex The prefrontal cortex is the most critical area in working memory. Damage to this area of the brain (or its connections with the posterior parietal and inferior temporal cortex) produces devastating deficits in working memory. Week 4: Long-Term Memory Hippocampus The hippocampus and adjacent cortical areas making up the medial temporal lobe are essential for the storage of new long-term, declarative memories. Damage to this area can cause anterograde amnesia, preserving already stored memories but making it impossible to store new ones. Association Cortex Once successfully stored, long-term declarative memories remain stored in a distributed fashion, throughout the association cortex. Week 5: Long-Term Memory Hippocampus The hippocampus and adjacent cortical areas making up the medial temporal lobe are essential for the storage of new long-term, declarative memories. Damage to this area can cause anterograde amnesia, preserving already stored memories but making it impossible to store new ones. Association Cortex Once successfully stored, long-term declarative memories remain stored in a distributed fashion, throughout the association cortex. Week 6: Language Wernicke’s Area Wernicke’s area is the primary cortical area involved in language comprehension. Damage to this brain area produces an inability to comprehend language, while leaving language production relatively intact. Broca’s Area Broca’s area mediates language production. Damage to Broca’s area renders patients able to understand language but unable to speak fluently. Week 7: Problem Solving/Decision Making/Intelligence/Creativity Prefrontal Cortex The prefrontal cortex is the main area involved in higher cognitive functions, including problem solving, decision making, and fluid intelligence. Week 8: Problem Solving/Decision Making/Intelligence/Creativity Prefrontal Cortex The prefrontal cortex is the main area involved in higher cognitive functions, including problem solving, decision making, and fluid intelligence. Week 9: Emotions Amygdala The amygdala is the main emotional center of the brain. It is activated by a range of emotions, including positive and negative ones. Orbital Frontal Cortex The orbital frontal cortex is the part of the cortex that is most involved with the emotions. Ventral Striatum The ventral striatum is one of the reward centers of the brain. Its activation is associated with pleasurable emotions. Week 10: Stress/Anxiety Amygdala The amygdala is activated by stress, and in turn influences a number of brain areas involved in cognitive functions, such as the prefrontal cortex and hippocampus. Hippocampus The hippocampus is affected by stress with direct results in memory function. Prefrontal Cortex Stress affects the function of the prefrontal cortex, and this represents the main source of cognitive problems associated with stress. Week 11: Problem Solving/Decision Making/Intelligence/Creativity Amygdala The amygdala is the main emotional center of the brain. It is activated by a range of emotions, including positive and negative ones. Orbital Frontal Cortex The orbital frontal cortex is the part of the cortex that is most involved with the emotions. Ventral Striatum The ventral striatum is one of the reward centers of the brain. Its activation is associated with pleasurable emotions.