What are two broad areas of research that lead us to believe that some behavioral/personality characteristics may be biologically (genetically/hormonally) determined

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What are two broad areas of research that lead us to believe that some behavioral/personality characteristics may be biologically (genetically/hormonally) determined

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  • What are two broad areas of research that lead us to believe that some behavioral/personality characteristics may be biologically (genetically/hormonally) determined? Give one specific example of research that points to this conclusion.
  • Describe how three different perspectives (of the eight perspectives discussed in the text) explain relations between personality and culture. Which theory accounts for cultural influences on personality best? Worst?

WEEK 10 Study Notes CHAPTER 11: MALE-FEMALE DIFFERENCES 1. Do males and females differ? A. Physical and physiological differences B. Studies have shown that subjects can agree on many personality characteristics that are “masculine” or “feminine” 1. Studies of validity and effect size show that there’s substantial overlap in male and female characteristics C. Reliable gender differences in psychological areas: 1. Spatial abilities 2. Verbal abilities 3. Communication 4. Aggression D. A brief history of gender differences in personality 1. 4,000 to 6,000 years ago females portrayed as nurturing, fertilityobjects, passive; men portrayed as hunters, aggressive, active 2. Women seen as less worthy, less valuable than men a. Plato: women as weak, inferior b. Aristotle: women as incomplete, incompetent c. Biblically, men were in power, had higher moral authority 3 Women evolutionarily designed to give birth, nurture, therefore this should he their primary role 4 Freud posited that psychological reactions to genital differences yielded gender differences 5. Current theories postulate an interaction of biological and environmental factors to produce “masculine” and “feminine” traits II. Biological influences on gender differences A. Chromosomes: XX vs. XY 1. Testes develop in XY embryos; produce androgen 2. Androgen (or lack thereof) initiates development of male vs. female genitalia B. Androgen exposure may also affect brain development and personality 1. Evidence from animal studies 2. Evidence from studies of humans with prenatal genetic or hormonal anomalies (e.g. XXX, XXY, XYY; Turner’s [XO] syndrome) III. Later changes in hormones and physical development A. Major differences in proportions of hormones produced by males vs. females starting at puberty B. Cyclic vs. non-cyclic nature of hormonal fluctuation 1. Emotionality and mood swings, etc. 2. Hysteria and the “wandering” uterus 3. Social and political implications IV. Brain differences related to gender are still largely unexplored A. Cerebral specialization has been suggested to explain differences in verbal and spatial abilities—degree of localization of function B. Corpus callosum is larger in females than in males V. Gender differences in personality from the different perspectives A. Psychoanalytic approaches 1. In the psychoanalytic, differences arise from responses to structural differences (a biologically-based explanation) B. Neoanalytic approaches 1. Erikson saw male traits (active, exploring) as tied to outward-extending genitalia; the female’s nurturing and peaceful traits were tied to the internality of her genitalia 2. Homey saw penis-envy as a small factor and described men’s “womb envy” a women envied men’s opportunities and roles, not their penises 3. Jung believed that maleness and femaleness were both important a animus and anima b. Incorporate both (androgyny) for healthy personally 4. Nancy Chodorow brings an object-relations perspective to the question of gender differences and the self a. Individuals are fundamentally influenced by relations with others b. Boys’ and girls’ relationships with their mothers is central to their development of self C. Biological/evolutionary approaches 1. Successful reproduction requires different sexual behaviors of men aid women a. men: many sexual contacts b. women: few, selective sexual contacts 2. Animal research with the maternal instinct indicates a biological basis 3. There are circumstances when it is evolutionarily adaptive for a mother NOT to nurture her child 0. Humanistic approaches: emphasize the good qualities that any self-actualized jerson would have, including 1. Traditionally female empathy and openness 2. Traditionally male creativity and autonomy E. Social learning: gender differences are learned, reinforced behaviors 1. Parents as primary socializers of sex-typed characteristics 2. Other societal models, including the media, reinforce these lessons F. Cognitive component: Gender schema theories 1. Our culture and gender-role socialization provide us with gender schemas 2. Schemas act as cognitive filters and are thus self-perpetuating G. Trait approaches to masculinity and femininity 1. Are these opposite poles of a single trait? Two independent dimensions? a. Bem Sex Robe Inventory and androgyny 2. Male-female differences have been studied in a variety of areas, including a. aggression and dominance b. emotionality c. achievement motivation H. Interactionist approaches: Social and interpersonal characteristics 1. Many gender relevant activities are closely tied to situational demands a. helping (gender differences in the types of help offered) b. nurturance/caring c. sociability d. nonverbal behaviors e. influenceability f. instrumentality vs. expressiveness g. Eagly’s studies I, Cross-cultural studies of gender differences indicate that many gender characteristics are culturally determined 1. Mead 2. Oakley 3. Whiting and Edwards Vi. Love and sexual behavior A. Stereotypes posit that men want sex, women want love B. Stereotypes of female sexuality throughout history are widely varying C. Culture provides context for learning “appropriate” sexual behaviors 1. Double standards for men vs. women regarding infidelity and premarital sex emphasize the “men want sex” and “women want love” ideas 2. Study of Boston college students showed men to be more romantic and to have more “love”; men were also more devastated ‘oy loss of the relationship D. Human sexual behavior relatively uninfluenced by hormone levels Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. CHAPTER 13: CULTURAL AND ETHNIC DIFFERENCES I. Why is there a gap in knowledge about the ethnic and cultural aspects of personality? A Laboratory studies are often not conducive to cross-cultural investigations B [here are relatively few professors from cultural minority groups C. Students tend to become researchers who follow the academt “tradition” of their mentors II. Why ‘s an understanding of culture important for an understanding of personality? Because personality development is influenced by: A Family B Peers C Societal institutions (churches, schools, government, etc.) D. Ethnicity F Class Ill. History of research on personality and culture A Mead’s studies of Samoan society, especially the transitions of adolescence B Whiting and Whiting’s studies of childrearing in individualistic vs. collectivist societies 1. Individualists emphasize autonomy and independence, whereas collectivists are interdependent and group-focused C. Linton’s influential book, The Cultural Background of Personality D. Lewin’s studies of leadership and group dynamics in democratic vs. autocratic “societies” E Distinction between emic (culture-specific) vs. etic (cross-cultural) approaches IV. Errors of scientific inference: The case of race A. Humans form groups based on many different criteria 1. Beliefs (such as religious or political) 2. Customs (such as food, clothing, or music) 3. Physical characteristics (such as skin color or facial features) a. because physical characteristics are so easy to notice, they are often over-used in assessing others “at a glance” B. The “American Dilemma” describes American lip-service to equality ri the face of injustice based on physical characteristics C. Should personality psychologists study race? V. Socioeconomic factors A. The SES gradient (those at higher SES are at lower risk of disease, premature death) B. SES effects on personality are not well documented C. The effects of economics on individual behavior have been studied (e.g. Marx and From m) VI. Importance of language A. Language is an important aspect of one’s identity 1. Native language 2. Dialect (regional variations) 3. ldiolect (individual variations) B. Importance of language illustrated in the distinctive nature of the deaf “culture”; also in the passion some feel for the “English only” movement C. “Linguistic Relativity” posits that our interpretations of the world are greatly influenced by the language we use to describe the world 1. Language can influence our social interactions in meaningful ways (e.g. we address powerful and important people in certain ways; the importance of these language rules varies by culture) 2. Use of masculine pronouns as a generic for all pecple influences how we see the world, our own capabilities, and our roles (use of gendered language in general) VII. Culture aria testing A. Assumptions underlying psychological tests are sometimes biased B. Test scores can be affected by many factors 1. Motivation 2. Previous test-taking experience 3. Qualities of the examiner 4. SES 5. Content may not capture cultural experience or may assume experiences not present C. Researchers have attempted to create “culture free” and “culture fair” tests; other tests attempt to take culture into account D. When are tests culturally biased and when do they indicate valid cultural differences? 1. We need the framework of culture in order to appropriately interpret behavior and personality (e.g. Erikson’s studies of the South Dakota Sioux) 2. Culture influences the roles we select and thereby behavior (e.g. the health-promoting habits of Seventh Day Adventists); it therefore helps us understand the relationship between personality and health 3. Cultural influences shape the theories we create to explain behavior arid personality E. Stereotype threat is discussed as a possible influence on the ability of minority ethnic groups to perform well on tests 1. refers to the threat that others’ judgments or their own actions will negatively stereotype them VIII. Current research developments A. The nature of the self (independent vs. cooperative, as illustrated by Western vs. Eastern thought) B. The interactions of people with situations as impacted by culture Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc.

  Excellent Good Fair Poor
Main Posting 45 (45%) – 50 (50%)

Answers all parts of the discussion question(s) expectations with reflective critical analysis and synthesis of knowledge gained from the course readings for the module and current credible sources.

 

Supported by at least three current, credible sources.

 

Written clearly and concisely with no grammatical or spelling errors and fully adheres to current APA manual writing rules and style.

40 (40%) – 44 (44%)

Responds to the discussion question(s) and is reflective with critical analysis and synthesis of knowledge gained from the course readings for the module.

 

At least 75% of post has exceptional depth and breadth.

 

Supported by at least three credible sources.

 

Written clearly and concisely with one or no grammatical or spelling errors and fully adheres to current APA manual writing rules and style.

35 (35%) – 39 (39%)

Responds to some of the discussion question(s).

 

One or two criteria are not addressed or are superficially addressed.

 

Is somewhat lacking reflection and critical analysis and synthesis.

 

Somewhat represents knowledge gained from the course readings for the module.

 

Post is cited with two credible sources.

 

Written somewhat concisely; may contain more than two spelling or grammatical errors.

 

Contains some APA formatting errors.

0 (0%) – 34 (34%)

Does not respond to the discussion question(s) adequately.

 

Lacks depth or superficially addresses criteria.

 

Lacks reflection and critical analysis and synthesis.

 

Does not represent knowledge gained from the course readings for the module.

 

Contains only one or no credible sources.

 

Not written clearly or concisely.

 

Contains more than two spelling or grammatical errors.

 

Does not adhere to current APA manual writing rules and style.

Main Post: Timeliness 10 (10%) – 10 (10%)

Posts main post by day 3.

0 (0%) – 0 (0%) 0 (0%) – 0 (0%) 0 (0%) – 0 (0%)

Does not post by day 3.

First Response 17 (17%) – 18 (18%)

Response exhibits synthesis, critical thinking, and application to practice settings.

 

Responds fully to questions posed by faculty.

 

Provides clear, concise opinions and ideas that are supported by at least two scholarly sources.

 

Demonstrates synthesis and understanding of learning objectives.

 

Communication is professional and respectful to colleagues.

 

Responses to faculty questions are fully answered, if posed.

 

Response is effectively written in standard, edited English.

15 (15%) – 16 (16%)

Response exhibits critical thinking and application to practice settings.

 

Communication is professional and respectful to colleagues.

 

Responses to faculty questions are answered, if posed.

 

Provides clear, concise opinions and ideas that are supported by two or more credible sources.

 

Response is effectively written in standard, edited English.

13 (13%) – 14 (14%)

Response is on topic and may have some depth.

 

Responses posted in the discussion may lack effective professional communication.

 

Responses to faculty questions are somewhat answered, if posed.

 

Response may lack clear, concise opinions and ideas, and a few or no credible sources are cited.

0 (0%) – 12 (12%)

Response may not be on topic and lacks depth.

 

Responses posted in the discussion lack effective professional communication.

 

Responses to faculty questions are missing.

 

No credible sources are cited.

Second Response 16 (16%) – 17 (17%)

Response exhibits synthesis, critical thinking, and application to practice settings.

 

Responds fully to questions posed by faculty.

 

Provides clear, concise opinions and ideas that are supported by at least two scholarly sources.

 

Demonstrates synthesis and understanding of learning objectives.

 

Communication is professional and respectful to colleagues.

 

Responses to faculty questions are fully answered, if posed.

 

Response is effectively written in standard, edited English.

14 (14%) – 15 (15%)

Response exhibits critical thinking and application to practice settings.

 

Communication is professional and respectful to colleagues.

 

Responses to faculty questions are answered, if posed.

 

Provides clear, concise opinions and ideas that are supported by two or more credible sources.

 

Response is effectively written in standard, edited English.

12 (12%) – 13 (13%)

Response is on topic and may have some depth.

 

Responses posted in the discussion may lack effective professional communication.

 

Responses to faculty questions are somewhat answered, if posed.

 

Response may lack clear, concise opinions and ideas, and a few or no credible sources are cited.

0 (0%) – 11 (11%)

Response may not be on topic and lacks depth.

 

Responses posted in the discussion lack effective professional communication.

 

Responses to faculty questions are missing.

 

No credible sources are cited.

Participation 5 (5%) – 5 (5%)

Meets requirements for participation by posting on three different days.

0 (0%) – 0 (0%) 0 (0%) – 0 (0%) 0 (0%) – 0 (0%)

Does not meet requirements for participation by posting on 3 different days.

Total Points: 100