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Urban et al. 2022 – RAC 2 – Spring 2022

Question 1

What sampling method or plan was used by the authors in this study?

 

  • Simple random sampling
  • Convenience sampling
  • Quota sampling
  • Systematic sampling

Question 2

According to Grove & Gray (2019), what are the potential biases of convenience sampling?

This is a strong probability sampling method with very little potential for bias.

This method is used when an ordered list of all members of the population are available, and provides a random but not equal chance for inclusion in the study.

This method provides little opportunity to control for bias because subjects are included in the study merely because they happen to be in the right place at the right time.

This method is specific to the individuals who were recruited and the information gained cannot be generalized to others who don’t share these types of experiences.

None of the above biases best describe convenience sampling.

 

Question 3

What was the final sample size reported by the authors for this study?

  • 364 participants
  • 399 participants
  • 1395 participants
  • Unknown/cannot be determined

 

Question 4

Was a power analysis conducted? If so, which statement best describes the results of the power analysis?

 

  • No. A power analysis was not conducted.
  • Yes. A power analysis was conducted which showed that a sample size of 1395 was required.

 

Urban et al. 2022 – RAC 2 – Spring 2022

Yes. A power analysis was conducted which showed that a sample of 402 was required.

 

Question 5

Which of these statements would be considered to be specific inclusion criteria for the sample in the research article? (Select all that apply.)

 

  • English speaking
  • Enrolled in the final semester of nursing school
  • Over 18 years of age
  • Have a stress score of 19 or greater

 

Question 6

Which of these statements would be considered to be specific exclusion criteria for the sample in the research article? (Select all that apply.)

 

  • RN – BSN Students
  • Students with failing grade in pharmacology
  • Less than 18 years of age
  • Upper division prelicensure students
  • Freshmen students declaring nursing as a major

Question 7

What is the acceptance rate for this study? (Hint: see page 232 in your text)

  • 35 out of 399 for a rate of 8.7%
  • 364 out of 1395 for a rate of 26.09%
  • 399 out of 1395 for a rate of 28.60%
  • Unknown / cannot be calculated.

Question 8

According to Grove and Gray (2019) when is it appropriate to calculate an attrition rate?When participants are reported to have withdrawn or stopped participating in a study.

 

 

 

Urban et al. 2022 – RAC 2 – Spring 2022

When participants remain in and complete a study.

When participants decline to participate in a study and give reasons for not participating.

When participants who meet the sampling criteria consent to be in a study.

Question 9

Briefly describe the setting and indicate whether it was appropriate for conducting this study. (Note: the key factor here is how much control the RESEARCHER has over the setting).

  • The setting for this study was a natural or field setting and was appropriate for this study’s research design.
  • The setting for this study was a partially controlled setting and was appropriate for this study’s research design.
  • The setting for this study was a highly controlled setting and was appropriate for this study’s research design.
  • No mention of the study setting is provided by the authors.

 

 

 

Question 10

Which one of these questionnaires, scales, or physiologic measures were used in this research study?

 

  • SPSS 27
  • Blood Pressure
  • The Self-Compassion Scale
  • The Resilience Scale

Question 11

What do the authors mention concerning the reliability of the study’s questionnaires or scales?

  • They assessed test retest reliability in this longitudinal study.
  • They utilized convergent validity to assess stability reliability.
  • They offered information about the precision and accuracy of the scales.
  • They used Cronbach’s alpha to assess internal reliability of the scales.

 

Urban et al. 2022 – RAC 2 – Spring 2022

 

 

Question 12

What evidence for validity was given by the authors for the Perceived Stress Scale (PSS-10)?

  • It has good internal consistency reliability.
  • It has acceptable or good construct validity.
  • It has acceptable criterion validity.
  • It has good divergent validity when compared to the PSOE-N.

 

Question 13

What types of data collection was done in this research study?

(Select all that apply.)

 

  • The authors obtained outcome and demographic data from the medical record.
  • The authors developed their own questions to ask about demographic information.
  • Interviews were reportedly used, but the authors do not explain what was included in them.
  • The authors used previously developed questionnaires or surveys.
  • The authors developed a resiliency intervention and delivered it during class time.

 

Question 14

Were any physiological measurements collected from the subjects for the purpose of this study?

 

  • Yes
  • No

 

Question 15

Which one of the following best describes the recruitment process used in this study?

 

Participants were recruited by phone calls.

Questionnaires / surveys were mailed to the prospective participants and returned in a self-addressed

stamped envelope.

 

Participants were referred by prenursing instructors.

 

Participants were recruited using e-mails and asked to complete a web-based survey.

 

 

 

Urban et al. 2022 – RAC 2 – Spring 2022

 

Question 16

Based on the study’s data collection methods, If there were more than one data collector, would an estimation of inter-rater reliability be an important concept for the authors to report on for this study?

 

  • yes, and the authors reported their efforts to achieve inter-rater reliability.
  • yes, but the authors do not discuss any efforts to achieve inter-rater reliability.
  • no, the issue of inter-rater reliability does not apply here.

 

Question 17

What descriptive statistics are used in this study?

(Select all that apply.)

 

mean

 

median

 

frequencies

 

standard deviation

 

z-scores

scatterplots

Question 18

What
inferential statistics
were used to examine the data obtained from the subjects?

(Select all that apply.)

 

Spearman’s correlations

 

Factor Analysis

 

t-Test

 

Chi-Square

 

ANOVA

Regression Analysis

 

 

 

 

Urban et al. 2022 – RAC 2 – Spring 2022

Question 19

What is the level of significance (alpha) set at for this study?

 

.001 or 0.1%

 

.01 or 1%

 

.05 or 5%

 

an alpha level or level of significance chosen by the authors was not specifically mentioned in the text of the article and cannot be inferred.

 

Question 20

Which of these findings from the article reflect statistically significant results ?

(Select all that apply.)

There were no significant differences on the PSOE-N subscale scores of social connectedness, self- motivation/determination, goal attachment, or time management. On-campus intended (OC) students were more likely to be younger (
t
[361] = 15.21,
P
< .001) and

Asian or Hispanic/Latino
(χ2
= 38.41,
P
< .001).

On campus-intended (OC) students reported higher levels of stress than their accelerated online- intended (AO) counterparts (
z
=
−2.98,

P
= .003).

There were no significant differences between AO and OC students on the PSOE-N total score (
z
=

−1.65,

P
= .099)

Average or cut-off values have not yet been established for the PSOE-N, but it was assessed for normality by the Shapiro-Wilk test.

Question 21

Which of these statements from the article would be considered
non-significant results
?

(Select all that apply)

 

There were no significant differences on the PSOE-N subscale scores of social connectedness, self-

motivation/determination, goal attachment, or time management.

On-campus intended (OC) students were more likely to be younger (
t
[361] = 15.21,
P
< .001) and

Asian or Hispanic/Latino
(χ2
= 38.41,
P
< .001).

On campus-intended (OC) students reported higher levels of stress than their accelerated online-

intended (AO) counterparts (
z
=
−2.98,

P
= .003).

There were no significant differences between AO and OC students on the PSOE-N total score (
z
=

−1.65,

P
= .099)

 

 

 

Urban et al. 2022 – RAC 2 – Spring 2022

Average or cut-off values have not yet been established for the PSOE-N, but it was assessed for normality by the Shapiro-Wilk test.

 

Question 22

Which one of these findings from the research study would be considered clinically important? A total of 364 online prenursing students completed the study surveys. Of these, 89% were female,

with an average age of 27.08 years. OC and AO-intended students were different in their self-report of stress and resilience levels, but not in a measurement of academic persistence initially designed to be used in online nursing students. Not all prelicensure programs are the same and neither should it be assumed that all prenursing

students are alike. Prenursing students are a vital and understudied component of the nursing student pipeline that is necessary to meet the ongoing demand for RNs in the United States.

Question 23

Which one of these statements below implied from the article would be considered a limitation of the study?

Prenursing students are a vital and understudied component of the nursing student pipeline that is necessary to meet the ongoing demand for RNs in the United States.

Data collection occurred when the participants of the study had been living with the COVID-19 pandemic for 6 to 9 months and may not realistically represent nonpandemic life. Mann-Whitney U tests were computed to compare OC- and AO-intended students on continuous variables. The PSOE-N seems to function similarly to describe student persistence in these 2 groups of prenursing students taking an online Introduction to Nursing course.

Question 24

Which one of these statements would be considered when evaluating generalization of these results?

 

Pearson χ2 tests and Fisher exact tests were computed to determine the differences between nominal variables, and independent-samples

t tests were computed on continuous variables.It is vital that future research targets the development of intentional program-specific interventions to assist prenursing students to recognize and manage stress and to support resilience.In both OC- and AO-intended students, significant relationships were found between stress, resilience, and persistence.

 

 

 

Urban et al. 2022 – RAC 2 – Spring 2022

This study used convenience sampling of prenursing students during a single semester from a single

research site.

 

Question 25

Which one of these statements from the article is a recommendation for future studies?

Develop intentional program-specific interventions to assist prenursing students to recognize and manage stress and to support resilience.

Prenursing students are a vital and understudied component of the nursing student pipeline that is necessary to meet the ongoing demand for RNs in the United States. Strengths of this study included an adequate sample size and a racially and ethnically diverse student population.

The PSOE-N may be a useful measure of persistence in prenursing students regardless of whether they are intending to apply to a traditional, face-to-face, campus-based, or an accelerated online nursing program.

 

 

If you have questions about this assignment, you can post them to the Q & A board for help. Please do not post the exact question from the assignment below and ask the group for the answer as this would constitute academic dishonesty.
Your assigned article for critique is
Urban, R.W., Jennings, L.A., & Cipher, D.J. (2022). Relationships among resilience, stress, and persistence in prenursing students during COVID-19. Nurse Educator, 47, 102-107. DOI: 10.1097/NNE.0000000000001146

Your questions for this week’s critique are here:

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