UJMV Allports Theory of Personality Essay

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UJMV Allports Theory of Personality Essay

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Nursing homework help

 

Write a paper explaining the rationales for Allport’s justification to study the normal and healthy adult, rather than the abnormal and possibly dysfunctional adult.

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Cengage Learning reserves the right to remove additional content at any time if subsequent rights restrictions require it. Theories of Personality Copyright 2017 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, in whole or in part. Due to electronic rights, some third party content may be suppressed from the eBook and/or eChapter(s). Editorial review has deemed that any suppressed content does not materially affect the overall learning experience. Cengage Learning reserves the right to remove additional content at any time if subsequent rights restrictions require it. Copyright 2017 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, in whole or in part. Due to electronic rights, some third party content may be suppressed from the eBook and/or eChapter(s). Editorial review has deemed that any suppressed content does not materially affect the overall learning experience. Cengage Learning reserves the right to remove additional content at any time if subsequent rights restrictions require it. ELEVENTH EDITION Theories of Personality DUANE P . SCHULTZ University of South Florida SYDNEY ELLEN SCHULTZ Australia • Brazil • Mexico • Singapore • United Kingdom • United States Copyright 2017 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, in whole or in part. Due to electronic rights, some third party content may be suppressed from the eBook and/or eChapter(s). Editorial review has deemed that any suppressed content does not materially affect the overall learning experience. Cengage Learning reserves the right to remove additional content at any time if subsequent rights restrictions require it. This is an electronic version of the print textbook. Due to electronic rights restrictions, some third party content may be suppressed. Editorial review has deemed that any suppressed content does not materially affect the overall learning experience. The publisher reserves the right to remove content from this title at any time if subsequent rights restrictions require it. For valuable information on pricing, previous editions, changes to current editions, and alternate formats, please visit www.cengage.com/highered to search by ISBN#, author, title, or keyword for materials in your areas of interest. Important Notice: Media content referenced within the product description or the product text may not be available in the eBook version. Copyright 2017 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, in whole or in part. Due to electronic rights, some third party content may be suppressed from the eBook and/or eChapter(s). Editorial review has deemed that any suppressed content does not materially affect the overall learning experience. Cengage Learning reserves the right to remove additional content at any time if subsequent rights restrictions require it. Theories of Personality, Eleventh Edition Duane P. Schultz and Sydney Ellen Schultz Product Director: Jon-David Hague Content Developer: Michelle Clark Product Assistant: Kimiya Hojjat Marketing Manager: Melissa Larmon Art and Cover Direction, Production Management, and Composition: Lumina Datamatics, Inc. Manufacturing Planner: Karen Hunt Cover Image: ©Alan Bailey/Shutterstock; ©Rusian Guzov/Shutterstock; ©sianc/ Shutterstock, ©Jochen Schoenfeld/Shutterstock, ©Konstantin Sutyagin/Shutterstock; ©PT Images/Shutterstock; ©Jason Stitt/Shutterstock; ©beboy/Shutterstock; ©TalyaPhoto/Shutterstock; ©knikola/ Shutterstock Unless otherwise noted all items ©Cengage Learning® © 2017, 2013 Cengage Learning WCN: 02-200-203 ALL RIGHTS RESERVED. No part of this work covered by the copyright herein may be reproduced or distributed in any form or by any means, except as permitted by U.S. copyright law, without the prior written permission of the copyright owner. For product information and technology assistance, contact us at Cengage Learning Customer & Sales Support, 1-800-354-9706. For permission to use material from this text or product, submit all requests online at www.cengage.com/permissions. Further permissions questions can be e-mailed to permissionrequest@cengage.com. Library of Congress Control Number: 2015915554 Student Edition: ISBN: 978-1-305-65295-8 Cengage Learning 20 Channel Center Street Boston, MA 02210 USA Cengage Learning is a leading provider of customized learning solutions with employees residing in nearly 40 different countries and sales in more than 125 countries around the world. Find your local representative at www.cengage.com. Cengage Learning products are represented in Canada by Nelson Education, Ltd. To learn more about Cengage Learning Solutions, visit www.cengage.com. Purchase any of our products at your local college store or at our preferred online store www.cengagebrain.com. Printed in the United States of America Print Number: 01 Print Year: 2015 Copyright 2017 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, in whole or in part. Due to electronic rights, some third party content may be suppressed from the eBook and/or eChapter(s). Editorial review has deemed that any suppressed content does not materially affect the overall learning experience. Cengage Learning reserves the right to remove additional content at any time if subsequent rights restrictions require it. brief Contents Preface CHAPTER 1 xiii Personality: What It Is and Why You Should Care 1 The Psychoanalytic Approach 35 CHAPTER 2 Sigmund Freud: Psychoanalysis 37 The Neo-psychoanalytic Approach 79 CHAPTER 3 Carl Jung: Analytical Psychology CHAPTER 4 Alfred Adler: Individual Psychology CHAPTER 5 Karen Horney: Neurotic Needs and Trends CHAPTER 6 81 The Life-Span Approach 157 Erik Erikson: Identity Theory 159 108 135 The Genetics Approach 191 CHAPTER 7 Gordon Allport: Motivation and Personality CHAPTER 8 Raymond Cattell, Hans Eysenck, the Five-Factor Theory, HEXACO, and the Dark Triad 213 The Humanistic Approach CHAPTER 9 CHAPTER 10 CHAPTER 11 Carl Rogers: Self-Actualization Theory 247 271 291 George Kelly: Personal Construct Theory The Behavioral Approach CHAPTER 12 245 Abraham Maslow: Needs-Hierarchy Theory The Cognitive Approach 193 293 315 B. F. Skinner: Reinforcement Theory 317 The Social-Learning Approach 339 CHAPTER 13 Albert Bandura: Modeling Theory 341 v Copyright 2017 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, in whole or in part. Due to electronic rights, some third party content may be suppressed from the eBook and/or eChapter(s). Editorial review has deemed that any suppressed content does not materially affect the overall learning experience. Cengage Learning reserves the right to remove additional content at any time if subsequent rights restrictions require it. vi Brief Contents The Limited-Domain Approach 369 CHAPTER 14 Facets of Personality: Taking Control, Taking Chances, and Finding Happiness 371 CHAPTER 15 Personality in Perspective 407 Glossary 419 References 425 Author Index 475 Subject Index 492 Copyright 2017 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, in whole or in part. Due to electronic rights, some third party content may be suppressed from the eBook and/or eChapter(s). Editorial review has deemed that any suppressed content does not materially affect the overall learning experience. Cengage Learning reserves the right to remove additional content at any time if subsequent rights restrictions require it. contents Preface CHAPTER 1 xiii Personality: What It Is and Why You Should Care Take a Look at the Word 1 Research in the Study of Personality 24 The Role of Theory in Personality Theories 29 Questions about Human Nature: What Are We Like? Chapter Summary 33 Review Questions 33 Suggested Readings 34 The Psychoanalytic Approach CHAPTER 2 Sigmund Freud: Psychoanalysis The Life of Freud (1856–1939) Freud Comes to America The Final Years 37 38 42 42 The Levels of Personality 45 Anxiety: A Threat to the Ego 47 49 Psychosexual Stages of Personality Development Questions about Human Nature 58 Criticisms of Freud’s Research 60 Extensions of Freudian Theory 73 Reflections on Freud’s Theory 74 76 Review Questions 77 Suggested Readings 78 The Neo-psychoanalytic Approach Carl Jung: Analytical Psychology The Life of Jung (1875–1961) 79 81 82 Psychic Energy: The Basis of Jung’s System Aspects of Personality 51 57 Assessment in Freud’s Theory Chapter Summary 43 44 The Structure of Personality Defenses against Anxiety 3 31 35 Instincts: The Propelling Forces of the Personality CHAPTER 1 86 87 The Development of the Personality Questions about Human Nature 93 96 vii Copyright 2017 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, in whole or in part. Due to electronic rights, some third party content may be suppressed from the eBook and/or eChapter(s). Editorial review has deemed that any suppressed content does not materially affect the overall learning experience. Cengage Learning reserves the right to remove additional content at any time if subsequent rights restrictions require it. viii Contents Assessment in Jung’s Theory 97 Research on Jung’s Theory 100 Reflections on Jung’s Theory CHAPTER 4 Chapter Summary 106 Review Questions 106 Suggested Readings 107 105 Alfred Adler: Individual Psychology The Life of Adler (1870–1937) 108 109 Inferiority Feelings: The Source of All Human Striving Striving for Superiority, or Perfection The Style of Life Social Interest Birth Order 114 116 117 Questions about Human Nature 120 Assessment in Adler’s Theory Research on Adler’s Theory 120 123 Reflections on Adler’s Theory CHAPTER 5 Chapter Summary 133 Review Questions 133 Suggested Readings 134 130 136 The Childhood Need for Safety and Security 139 Basic Anxiety: The Foundation of Neurosis 140 Neurotic Needs 141 The Idealized Self-Image Feminine Psychology 145 146 Questions about Human Nature 149 Assessment in Horney’s Theory Research on Horney’s Theory 150 151 Reflections on Horney’s Theory 6 135 Karen Horney: Neurotic Needs and Trends The Life of Horney (1885–1952) CHAPTER 111 113 Chapter Summary 154 Review Questions 155 Suggested Readings 155 153 The Life-Span Approach 157 Erik Erikson: Identity Theory 159 The Life of Erikson (1902–1994) 160 Psychosocial Stages of Personality Development Basic Weaknesses 162 170 Questions about Human Nature Assessment in Erikson’s Theory Research on Erikson’s Theory 170 171 172 Copyright 2017 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, in whole or in part. Due to electronic rights, some third party content may be suppressed from the eBook and/or eChapter(s). Editorial review has deemed that any suppressed content does not materially affect the overall learning experience. Cengage Learning reserves the right to remove additional content at any time if subsequent rights restrictions require it. Contents ix Reflections on Erikson’s Theory Chapter Summary 189 Review Questions 189 Suggested Readings 190 188 191 The Genetics Approach CHAPTER 7 Gordon Allport: Motivation and Personality 193 Allport Brings Personality into the Classroom and the Psychology Lab The Life of Allport (1897–1967) The Nature of Personality Personality Traits 196 197 Motivation: What We Strive for 198 Personality Development in Childhood: The Unique Self The Healthy Adult Personality 202 Questions about Human Nature 203 Assessment in Allport’s Theory 204 Research on Allport’s Theory 8 Chapter Summary 211 Review Questions 211 Suggested Readings 212 200 205 Reflections on Allport’s Theory CHAPTER 193 194 210 Raymond Cattell, Hans Eysenck, the Five-Factor Theory, HEXACO, and the Dark Triad 213 Predicting Behavior 214 The Life of Cattell (1905–1998) 214 Cattell’s Approach to Personality Traits 216 Source Traits: The Basic Factors of Personality Dynamic Traits: The Motivating Forces Stages of Personality Development 219 Questions about Human Nature 221 Assessment in Cattell’s Theory 222 Research on Cattell’s Theory 223 Reflections on Cattell’s Theory Behavioral Genetics 218 219 225 226 Hans Eysenck (1916–1997) 226 The Dimensions of Personality 226 Robert McCrae and Paul Costa: The Five-Factor Model 230 Michael Ashton and Kibeom Lee: HEXACO: The Six-Factor Model 239 Delroy Paulhus and Kevin Williams: The Dark Triad of Personality 240 Personality Traits and the Internet 241 Reflections on the Trait Approach 242 Chapter Summary 242 Copyright 2017 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, in whole or in part. Due to electronic rights, some third party content may be suppressed from the eBook and/or eChapter(s). Editorial review has deemed that any suppressed content does not materially affect the overall learning experience. Cengage Learning reserves the right to remove additional content at any time if subsequent rights restrictions require it. x Contents Review Questions 243 Suggested Readings 243 245 The Humanistic Approach CHAPTER 9 247 Abraham Maslow: Needs-Hierarchy Theory The Life of Maslow (1908–1970) 248 Personality Development: The Hierarchy of Needs The Study of Self-Actualizers 255 Questions about Human Nature 260 Assessment in Maslow’s Theory 261 Research on Maslow’s Theory 262 Reflections on Maslow’s Theory CHAPTER 10 Chapter Summary 239 Review Questions 270 Suggested Readings 270 238 271 Carl Rogers: Self-Actualization Theory The Life of Rogers (1902–1987) 272 The Self and the Tendency toward Actualization The Experiential World 276 Characteristics of Fully Functioning Persons 279 Questions about Human Nature 281 Assessment in Rogers’s Theory 282 Research on Rogers’s Theory 283 Reflections on Rogers’s Theory 289 Review Questions 289 Suggested Readings 290 288 291 The Cognitive Approach CHAPTER 11 274 276 The Development of the Self in Childhood Chapter Summary George Kelly: Personal Construct Theory The Cognitive Movement in Psychology The Life of Kelly (1905–1967) Personal Construct Theory 295 398 Questions about Human Nature 304 Assessment in Kelly’s Theory Research on Kelly’s Theory Reflections on Kelly’s Theory 313 Review Questions 313 Suggested Readings 314 293 293 297 Ways of Anticipating Life Events Chapter Summary 250 304 308 312 Copyright 2017 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, in whole or in part. Due to electronic rights, some third party content may be suppressed from the eBook and/or eChapter(s). Editorial review has deemed that any suppressed content does not materially affect the overall learning experience. Cengage Learning reserves the right to remove additional content at any time if subsequent rights restrictions require it. Contents xi The Behavioral Approach CHAPTER 12 315 317 B. F. Skinner: Reinforcement Theory Rats, Pigeons, and an Empty Organism The Life of Skinner (1904–1990) 317 318 Reinforcement: The Basis of Behavior 321 Operant Conditioning and the Skinner Box Schedules of Reinforcement The Shaping of Behavior Superstitious Behavior 326 328 The Self-Control of Behavior 329 Applications of Operant Conditioning Questions about Human Nature 332 Assessment in Skinner’s Theory 333 Research on Skinner’s Theory Chapter Summary 337 Review Questions 337 Suggested Readings 338 330 334 Reflections on Skinner’s Theory 335 339 The Social-Learning Approach CHAPTER 13 323 324 341 Albert Bandura: Modeling Theory The Life of Bandura (1925–) 342 Modeling: The Basis of Observational Learning The Processes of Observational Learning Self-Reinforcement and Self-Efficacy 350 Developmental Stages of Self-Efficacy 353 Behavior Modification 354 Questions about Human Nature Assessment in Bandura’s Theory Research on Bandura’s Theory Reflections on Bandura’s Theory Chapter Summary 367 Review Questions 368 Suggested Readings 368 357 357 357 366 The Limited-Domain Approach CHAPTER 14 343 348 369 Facets of Personality: Taking Control, Taking Chances, and Finding Happiness 371 Julian Rotter: Locus of Control 372 Marvin Zuckerman: Sensation Seeking 378 Martin E. P. Seligman: Learned Helplessness and the Optimistic/Pessimistic Explanatory Style 385 Copyright 2017 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, in whole or in part. Due to electronic rights, some third party content may be suppressed from the eBook and/or eChapter(s). Editorial review has deemed that any suppressed content does not materially affect the overall learning experience. Cengage Learning reserves the right to remove additional content at any time if subsequent rights restrictions require it. xii Contents Martin Seligman: Positive Psychology CHAPTER 15 Chapter Summary 404 Review Questions 405 Suggested Readings 405 Personality in Perspective The Genetic Factor The Learning Factor 410 The Parental Factor 411 The Developmental Factor 408 413 The Consciousness Factor 416 The Unconscious Factor 416 Review Questions 407 407 The Environmental Factor Final Comment 395 417 417 Glossary 419 References 425 Author Index 475 Subject Index 492 Copyright 2017 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, in whole or in part. Due to electronic rights, some third party content may be suppressed from the eBook and/or eChapter(s). Editorial review has deemed that any suppressed content does not materially affect the overall learning experience. Cengage Learning reserves the right to remove additional content at any time if subsequent rights restrictions require it. preface to the Eleventh Edition Each edition of a textbook must be as vital, dynamic, and responsive to change as the field it covers. To remain an effective teaching instrument, it must reflect the development of the field and continue to challenge its readers. We have seen the focus of personality study shift from global theories, beginning with Sigmund Freud’s 19th-century psychoanalytic theory of neuroses, to 21st-century explorations of more limited personality facets or dimensions. And we have seen the basis of personality exploration change from case studies of emotionally disturbed persons to more scientifically based research with diverse populations. Contemporary work in the field reflects differences in gender, age, and sexual orientation as well as ethnic, racial, religious, and cultural heritage. New and Expanded Coverage New biographical material has been included for the theorists, to suggest how the development of their theory may have been influenced by events in their personal and professional lives. This approach shows students that the development of science through theory and research is not always totally objective. It may also derive from intuition and personal experience later refined and extended by more rational, analytic processes. Social and cultural influences on the theorists’ beliefs about human nature are also described. The sections on personality research have been updated with nearly 400 new references to maintain the emphasis on current issues. Research findings have been summarized throughout the text in “Highlights” boxes; this feature presents bullet point lists to help the student organize and compare the results of research studies. Some of the topics with new and expanded coverage include the following: • • • • • • • • • • • • Do we present our true selves on social media? How does the use of social media influence our personality? How does our personality influence our use of social media? Do selfies show the real you? Updated work on the MMPI, the Rorschach, and the Thematic Apperception Test. The Mechanical Turk—a new way to conduct personality research online. New findings on the Freudian concepts of ego resilience, the Oedipus complex, and defense mechanisms. New findings on dreams, and the use of computers to interpret dreams. Social companion robots to facilitate psychoanalysis. Research on Jung’s Psychological Types conducted in Arab cultures. Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) as a result of neglect in childhood. New findings on Adler’s concept of birth order. Over 30 new studies on Erikson’s concepts of ego identity, gender preference, virtual ethnic identity, gender differences in toy preferences, and his stages of development. Cultural differences from Allport’s work extended to the facial expression of emotions. More on the five-factor model of personality and the Dark Triad—an approach that includes narcissism, machiavellianism, and psychopathy. The Smartphone Basic Needs Scale—a self-report inventory designed to measure how Maslow’s hierarchy of needs can be satisfied by smartphone use. xiii Copyright 2017 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, in whole or in part. Due to electronic rights, some third party content may be suppressed from the eBook and/or eChapter(s). Editorial review has deemed that any suppressed content does not materially affect the overall learning experience. Cengage Learning reserves the right to remove additional content at any time if subsequent rights restrictions require it. xiv Preface to the Eleventh Edition • • • New research findings on self-efficacy and locus of control. Techniques to measure sensation seeking. The relationship between sensation seeking and cyberbullying. More on Seligman’s life and his development of positive psychology. Defining and finding happiness. The concept of flourishing. And how learned helplessness was used in developing techniques of torture in the war on terror. Organization of the Text The eleventh edition of Theories of Personality retains its orientation toward undergraduate students who have had little previous exposure to personality theories. Our purpose is to reach out to beginning students and ease their task of learning about the study of personality. We have chosen theorists who represent psychoanalytic, neopsychoanalytic, lifespan, genetics, humanistic, cognitive, behavioral, and social-learning approaches, as well as clinical and experimental work. The concluding chapter reviews these perspectives that describe personality development and suggests ways to help students draw conclusions and achieve closure from their studies. Each theory in the text is discussed as a unit. Although we recognize the value of an issues or problems approach that compares theories on specific points, we believe that the issues-oriented book is more appropriate for higher-level students. The theories-oriented text makes it easier for beginning students to grasp a theory’s essential concepts and overall flavor. We try to present each theory clearly, to convey its most important ideas, assumptions, definitions, and methods. We discuss each theorist’s methods of assessment and empirical research and offer evaluations and reflections. Except for placing Freud first in recognition of his chronological priority, we have not arranged the theories in order of perceived importance. Each theory is placed in the perspective of competing viewpoints. A Note on Diversity The first person to propose a comprehensive theory of the human personality was Sigmund Freud, a 19th-century clinical neurologist who formulated his ideas while treating patients in Vienna, Austria. His work, called psychoanalysis, was based largely on sessions with wealthy White European women who came to him complaining of emotional distress and disturbing thoughts and behaviors. From his observations of their progress, or lack of it, he offered a theory to explain everyone’s personality. Freud’s system was important for the concepts he proposed—many of which are now part of popular culture—as well as for the opposition he provoked, inspiring other theorists to examine and promote their own ideas to explain personality. Today, personality theorists and researchers recognize that an explanation based on a small, homogeneous segment of the population cannot be applied to the diverse groups of people sharing space in our world. The situation is similar in medicine. Medical researchers recognize, for example, that some medications and treatments appropriate for young adults are not suitable for children or elderly people. Diseases prevalent in certain ethnic groups are rare in others, requiring differences in medical screening and testing for diverse populations. Contemporary personality theory strives to be inclusive, studying the influences of age, gender, race, ethnic origin, religious beliefs, sexual orientation, and child-rearing practices. We see examples of this diversity throughout the text. Copyright 2017 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, in whole or in part. Due to electronic rights, some third party content may be suppressed from the eBook and/or eChapter(s). Editorial review has deemed that any suppressed content does not materially affect the overall learning experience. Cengage Learning reserves the right to remove additional content at any time if subsequent rights restrictions require it. Preface to the Eleventh Edition xv Features For the student, we offer chapter outlines, summaries, research highlights, review questions, annotated reading lists, margin glossary terms, a cumulative glossary, tables and figures, a reference list, and referrals to relevant Web sites. For instructors, the instructor’s manual with test bank has been thoroughly revised and offers lecture outlines, ideas for class discussion, projects, useful web links, and test items. The test bank is available in digital formats. PowerPoint Lecture Slides and electronic transparencies are available on eBank. The transparencies feature select figures and tables from the text loaded into Microsoft PowerPoint. Contact your local sales representative for details. Duane P. Schultz Sydney Ellen Schultz Copyright 2017 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, in whole or in part. Due to electronic rights, some third party content may be suppressed from the eBook and/or eChapter(s). Editorial review has deemed that any suppressed content does not materially affect the overall learning experience. Cengage Learning reserves the right to remove additional content at any time if subsequent rights restrictions require it. Copyright 2017 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, in whole or in part. Due to electronic rights, some third party content may be suppressed from the eBook and/or eChapter(s). Editorial review has deemed that any suppressed content does not materially affect the overall learning experience. Cengage Learning reserves the right to remove additional content at any time if subsequent rights restrictions require it. chapter 1 Personality: What It Is and Why You Should Care Take a Look at the Word Everybody Has One Describing Your Personality How Does Personality Develop? Ways of Looking at Personality How Others See Us Stable and Predictable Characteristics Unique Characteristics Personality and the Social Media Behavioral Assessment Thought and Experience Assessment Gender and Ethnic Issues That Affect Assessment Research in the Study of Personality The Clinical Method The Experimental Method Virtual Research The Correlational Method Are You the Same Person Online? How Does the Social Media Influence Our Personality? How Does Our Personality Influence Our Use of Social Media? The Role of Theory in Personality Theories The Role of Race and Gender in Shaping Personality Questions about Human Nature: What Are We Like? The Role of Culture in Shaping Personality Different Cultural Beliefs about Destiny Individualism Child-Rearing Practices Self-Enhancement A Diversity of Cultures Assessing Your Personality The Concepts of Reliability and Validity Self-Report Personality Tests Online Test Administration Projective Techniques Clinical Interviews The Autobiographical Nature of Personality Theories Are We in Charge of Our Lives? Free Will versus Determinism What Dominates Us? Our Inherited Nature or Our Nurturing Environment? Are We Dependent or Independent of Childhood? Is Human Nature Unique or Universal? Our Life Goals: Satisfaction or Growth? Our Outlook: Optimism or Pessimism? Chapter Summary Review Questions Suggested Readings Take a Look at the Word Let’s start by examining the word you’re going to be dealing with this semester. It not only defines this course, but it will also help define your life as well. Here are three standard dictionary definitions of the word taken at random: • • • The state of being a person. The characteristics and qualities that form a person’s distinctive character. The sum total of all the physical, mental, emotional, and social characteristic of a person. You get the idea. It’s everything about you that makes you what you are—a unique individual who is different, in large and small ways, from everybody else. It’s a simple word, but a difficult concept to truly comprehend, which is why it takes a book and a semester to begin to come to grips with it. We’re going to try to understand it, or at least learn something about it, by exploring the various ideas that psychologists have advanced over the years to try to explain it. 1 Copyright 2017 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, in whole or in part. Due to electronic rights, some third party content may be suppressed from the eBook and/or eChapter(s). Editorial review has deemed that any suppressed content does not materially affect the overall learning experience. Cengage Learning reserves the right to remove additional content at any time if subsequent rights restrictions require it. 2 Chapter 1: Personality: What It Is and Why You Should Care We have organized those ideas—those theories—in terms of their different outlooks on human nature, beginning with Sigmund Freud. We will deal with extensions that grew out of his theory of psychoanalysis and talk about the men and women who revised his ideas or rebelled against them. After that, we will move on to what is called the lifespan approach, tracking personality development from birth all the way to old age. We’ll then discuss theories that focus on individual personality traits, on psychological health, on predetermined behavior patterns, and on cognitive learning from social situations. We will also introduce current ideas for the 21st century and offer some suggestions and conclusions from our exploration of personality. It’s important to recognize that personality theorists from the last century rarely considered the importance of ethnic and cultural differences. We will see that it is not meaningful to generalize to all people from, for example, ideas that one theorist based on clinical observations of neurotic European women, or that another theorist based on tests given to American male college students. Therefore, when we discuss research conducted on these theories, and describe their use for real-world problems of diagnosis and therapy, we’ll also try to show the influence of age, gender, race, ethnic and national origin, religious beliefs, and sexual orientation. To make your study easier, we will include Highlights sections, giving brief summaries of research findings, as well as chapter outlines, summaries, review questions, and reading lists. Important words will be defined in the margins, and these definitions will also be listed in the glossary in the back of the book. In addition, check out the Web sites in our “Log On” features included in each chapter. For direct links, log on to the student companion site at www.cengagebrain.com. Everybody Has One Everybody has one—a personality, that is—and yours will help determine the boundaries of your success and life fulfillment. It is no exaggeration to say that your personality is one of your most important assets. It has already helped shape your experiences up to now, and it will continue to do so for the rest of your life. Everything you have accomplished to date, all of your expectations for the future, whether you will make a good husband, wife, partner, or parent, even your health can be influenced by your personality and the personalities of those around you. Your personality can limit or expand your options and choices in life, prevent you from sharing certain experiences, or enable you to take full advantage of them. It restricts, constrains, and holds back some people and opens up the world of new opportunities to others. How often have you said that someone has a terrific personality? By that you typically mean the person is affable, pleasant, nice to be around, and easy to get along with—the kind of person you might choose to be a friend, roommate, or colleague at work. If you are a manager, you might choose to hire this person. If you are ready to commit to a relationship, you might want to marry this person, basing your decision on your perception of his or her personality. You also know people you describe as having a terrible personality. They may be aloof, hostile, aggressive, unfriendly, unpleasant, or difficult to get along with. You would not hire them or want to associate with them, and they may also be shunned, rejected, and isolated by others. Keep in mind that, while you are making judgments about the personalities of other people, they are making the same kinds of judgments about you. These mutual decisions that shape the lives of both the judged and the judges are made countless times, every time we are in a social situation that requires us to interact with new people. Of course, the number and variety of social situations you are involved in are also determined by your personality—for example, your relative sociability or shyness. You know where Copyright 2017 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, in whole or in part. Due to electronic rights, some third party content may be suppressed from the eBook and/or eChapter(s). Editorial review has deemed that any suppressed content does not materially affect the overall learning experience. Cengage Learning reserves the right to remove additional content at any time if subsequent rights restrictions require it. Chapter 1: Personality: What It Is and Why You Should Care 3 you rate on that characteristic, just as you no doubt have a reasonably clear picture of what your overall personality is like. Describing Your Personality Of course, it’s glib and overly simple to try to sum up the total constellation of someone’s personality characteristics by using such fuzzy terms as terrific and terrible. The subject of personality is too complex for such a simplified description, because humans are too complex and changeable in different situations and with different people. We need to be more precise in our language to adequately define and describe personality. For that reason, psychologists have devoted considerable effort to developing tests to assess, or measure, personality, as we’ll see throughout the book. You may think you don’t need a psychological test to tell you what your personality is like, and, in general, you may be right. After all, you probably know yourself better than anyone else. If you were asked to list the words that best describe your personality, no doubt you could do it without too much thought, assuming you were being honest with yourself. Try it. Write down as many adjectives as you can think of to describe what you are really like—not how you would like to be, or what you want your teachers or parents or Facebook friends to think you are like—but the real you. (Try not to use the word terrific, even if it does apply in your case.) How many words did you find? Six? Ten? A few more? A widely used personality test, the Adjective Check List, offers an astonishing 300 adjectives that describe personality. People taking the test choose the ones that best describe themselves. No, we’re not going to ask you to go through all 300 adjectives, only the 30 listed in Table 1.1. Place a check mark next to the ones you think apply to you. When you’re done, you’ll have a description of your personality in greater detail, but remember that in the actual test, you would have another 270 items to pick from. How Does Personality Develop? Our focus here is not on what your personality is like. You don’t need a psychology course to learn that. What we will be studying are the forces and factors that shape your personality. Later in this chapter, and throughout the book, we will deal with TABLE 1.1 Adjective check list Make a check mark next to the words you believe apply to your personality. affectionate ambitious assertive boastful cheerful cynical demanding dominant fearful forceful generous high-strung impatient insightful meek moody optimistic opinionated persistent prudish relaxed sarcastic sensitive sociable submissive tolerant trusting uninhibited vindictive withdrawn Copyright 2017 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, in whole or in part. Due to electronic rights, some third party content may be suppressed from the eBook and/or eChapter(s). Editorial review has deemed that any suppressed content does not materially affect the overall learning experience. Cengage Learning reserves the right to remove additional content at any time if subsequent rights restrictions require it. 4 Chapter 1: Personality: What It Is and Why You Should Care some basic questions about the nature of personality—for example, whether we are born with a certain type of personality or learn it from our parents, whether personality is influenced by unconscious forces, and whether it can change as we get older. We will cover a variety of theories that have been proposed to help answer these and related questions about human nature. After we have discussed them—what they are, how they came about, and what their current status is—we will evaluate how useful they are in answering our questions and contributing to our understanding of how personality develops. We may think of each of these theorists as contributing individual pieces to a huge online jigsaw puzzle, which is why we study their ideas, even though some of their concepts are decades old. Psychologists continue to try to fit these pieces together to bring forth a clearer image, a more complete picture of what makes us the way we are and determines how we look at the world. LOG ON Personality Project – Northwestern University Discusses major approaches to personality theory and offers links to resources, advice for students, and information about personality tests. Personality Theories e-textbook – Professor C. George Boeree Downloadable chapters about major personality theorists and links to relevant web sites. Society for Personality and Social Psychology The world’s largest organization of personality and social psychologists; a division of the American Psychological Association. Members work in academics, industry and government. The site offers information on training and careers. Ways of Looking at Personality We talked about formal definitions of personality earlier. Now let’s get away from dictionary definitions and take a look at how we use the word in our everyday lives. We use it a lot when we are describing other people and ourselves. One psychologist suggested that we can get a very good idea of its meaning if we examine our intentions—what we mean—whenever we use the word I (Adams, 1954). When you say I, you are, in effect, summing up everything about yourself—your likes and dislikes, fears and virtues, strengths and weaknesses. The word I is what defines you as an individual, separate from everybody else. How Others See Us Another way of trying to understand personality is to look to its source. The word goes back to about the year 1500, and derives from the Latin word persona, which refers to a mask used by actors in a play. It’s easy to see how persona came to refer to our outward appearance, the public face we display to the people around us. Based on its derivation, then, we might conclude that personality refers to our external and visible characteristics, those aspects of us that other people can see. Our personality would then be defined in terms of the impression we make on others—that is, what we appear to be. Viewed from that perspective, personality is the visible aspect of one’s character, Copyright 2017 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, in whole or in part. Due to electronic rights, some third party content may be suppressed from the eBook and/or eChapter(s). Editorial review has deemed that any suppressed content does not materially affect the overall learning experience. Cengage Learning reserves the right to remove additional content at any time if subsequent rights restrictions require it. Chapter 1: Personality: What It Is and Why You Should Care 5 Cristian Baitg/Photographer’s Choice/Getty Images Our personality may be the mask we wear when we face the outside world as it impresses others. In other words, our personality may be the mask we wear when we face the outside world. But is that all we mean when we use the word personality? Are we talking only about what we can see or how another person appears to us? Does personality refer solely to the mask we wear and the role we play? Surely, when we talk about personality, we mean more than that. We mean to include many different attributes of an individual, a totality or collection of various characteristics that goes beyond superficial physical qualities. The word encompasses a host of subjective social and emotional qualities as well, ones that we may not be able to see directly, that a person may try to hide from us, or that we may try to hide from others. Stable and Predictable Characteristics We may in our use of the word personality refer to enduring characteristics. We assume that personality is relatively stable and predictable. Although we recognize, for example, that a friend may be calm much of the time, we know that he or she can become excitable, nervous, or panicky at other times. Thus, sometimes our personality can vary with the situation. Yet although it is not rigid, it is generally resistant to sudden changes. In the 1960s, a debate erupted within psychology about the relative impact on behavior of such enduring personal variables as traits and needs versus variables relating to the situation (see Mischel, 1968, 1973). The controversy continued for some 20 years and concluded with the realization that the “longstanding and controversy-generating dichotomy between the effect of the situation versus the effect of the person on behavior … is and always was a fake” (Funder, 2001, p. 200). And so the issue was resolved by accepting an interactionist Copyright 2017 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, in whole or in part. Due to electronic rights, some third party content may be suppressed from the eBook and/or eChapter(s). Editorial review has deemed that any suppressed content does not materially affect the overall learning experience. Cengage Learning reserves the right to remove additional content at any time if subsequent rights restrictions require it. 6 Chapter 1: Personality: What It Is and Why You Should Care approach, agreeing that enduring and stable personal traits, changing aspects of the situation, and the interaction between them must all be considered in order to provide a full explanation for human nature. Unique Characteristics personality The unique, relatively enduring internal and external aspects of a person’s character that influence behavior in different situations. Our definition of personality may also include the idea of human uniqueness. We see similarities among people, yet we sense that each of us possesses special properties that distinguish us from all others. Thus, we may suggest that personality is an enduring and unique cluster of characteristics that may change in response to different situations. Even this, however, is not a definition with which all psychologists agree. To achieve more precision, we must examine what each personality theorist means by the term. Each one, as we will see, offers a unique version, a personal vision, of the nature of personality, and that viewpoint has become his or her definition. And that is what this book is all about: reaching an understanding of the different versions of the concept of personality and examining the various ways of defining the word I. Personality and the Social Media Our increasing, almost constant use of the various social media to interact with other people in a virtual reality rather than in person has led to a great deal of recent research which attempts to relate our personalities to the online world in which we now live. There are at least three ways in which social media and personality may interact to affect one another, leading to three questions to which psychologists are increasingly seeking answers. 1. Do we present our real selves on social media? 2. Does the use of social media influence or change our personalities? 3. Do people with different personalities use social media in different ways? Are You the Same Person Online? We saw earlier that one way of defining personality is in terms of the mask we wear, the public face we display to the people around us. Increasingly, many of us display another face, not in person, but through the Internet on social networking Web sites such as Facebook. As a result, another way of defining our personality may include how others see us online. But are they seeing us as we really are, or are we creating online some idealized self-image that we want to display to other people? Are we pretending to be someone we are not, or are we conveying an accurate description of our personality? Some research suggests that most people are honest about their online faces. Studies conducted in the United States and in Germany found that social networking sites do convey accurate images or impressions of the personality profiles we offer. The researchers concluded that depictions of personalities presented online are at least as accurate as those conveyed in face-to-face interactions (Gosling, Gaddis, & Vazire, 2007; Back et al., 2010). A more recent large-scale study in Germany, however, found that many people have a tendency to present themselves online as being much more emotionally stable than they really are (Blumer & Doring, 2012). Other later studies have found that those who are introverted, neurotic, lonely, and socially awkward find it easier to express their true selves (their real personalities) online instead of in person (Marriott & Buchanan, 2014). It has also been found that those who feel they are able to express their true selves Copyright 2017 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, in whole or in part. Due to electronic rights, some third party content may be suppressed from the eBook and/or eChapter(s). Editorial review has deemed that any suppressed content does not materially affect the overall learning experience. Cengage Learning reserves the right to remove additional content at any time if subsequent rights restrictions require it. Chapter 1: Personality: What It Is and Why You Should Care 7 are more active on Facebook and other social media sites than those who do not feel that way about themselves (Seidman, 2014). And what about selfies, those photos we take of ourselves? How accurate are they in showing our true selves? Or are they merely posing and posturing for effect, to impress others—to make our own little “reality shows?” Research has found that more women than men send selfies and that excessive use of them can make the sender less likeable and even reduce the intimacy or closeness of friendships. They can even reinforce the idea that how people look is more important than how they actually behave in real life toward their friends (Drexler, 2013; Rutledge, 2013). Of course, as you know, we are not always honest in how we depict ourselves in person either, particularly when we meet new people we want to impress, like a date or an employer. With people we have known for a while, with whom we feel secure, and who represent no threat, we may be less likely to pretend to be something we are not. Perhaps the major difference with social networking sites is that there is a much wider and more instantly reachable audience than in our everyday offline lives. In addition, we now know that what we post about ourselves can also have great potential consequences to our careers and future when prospective employers find “inappropriate content” such as drunkenness, sexual display, and use of profanity on a candidate’s social media sites. One study found that evaluations of Facebook pages containing negative content resulted in false perceptions of that person’s personality. Sites of those with no inappropriate displays resulted in more accurate evaluations of the person’s personality, which, in the real world, can make the difference between being hired for a job or accepted by a graduate school (Goodman, Smith, Ivancevich, & Lundberg, 2014). How Does the Social Media Influence Our Personality? Psychologists have found that the use of online social networking sites like Facebook can both shape and reflect our personalities. One study of adolescents in China aged 13 to 18 found that excessive time spent using the Internet resulted in significant levels of anxiety and depression when compared to teenagers who spent considerably less time online (Lam & Peng, 2010). Other research found that high levels of social media use can reduce psychological well-being (how happy we feel) and decrease the quality of relationships with friends and romantic partners (Blais, Craig, Pepler, & Connolly, 2008; Huang, 2010a; Kross et al., 2013). An online survey of college students in the United States showed that those who spent time talking with their parents on the telephone had more satisfying personal and supportive relationships with them than students who kept in touch with the parents through social networking sites. In addition, college students who communicated with their parents on social networking sites reported greater loneliness, anxiety, and conflict in their relationships with their parents (Gentzler, Oberhauser, Westerman, & Nadorff, 2011). Studies conducted in such diverse countries as the Netherlands, Serbia, Hong Kong, and Korea have demonstrated that those who reported excessive use of social media tend to be more lonely, introverted, and low in self-esteem than those who use it less (Baek, Bae, & Jang, 2013; Milosevic-Dordevic & Zezelj, 2013; Muusses, Finkenauer, Kerkhof, & Billedo, 2014; Yao & Zhong, 2014). Spending too much time online can also lead to addiction, which can be just as obsessive and excessive as addiction to alcohol, drugs, or gambling. Excessive online use has also been shown to change portions of the brain that are linked to depression and increased irritability (Mosher, 2011). Copyright 2017 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, in whole or in part. Due to electronic rights, some third party content may be suppressed from the eBook and/or eChapter(s). Editorial review has deemed that any suppressed content does not materially affect the overall learning experience. Cengage Learning reserves the right to remove additional content at any time if subsequent rights restrictions require it. 8 Chapter 1: Personality: What It Is and Why You Should Care How Does Our Personality Influence Our Use of Social Media? In addition to affecting our personalities, social networking sites can also reflect them. Studies in both Eastern and Western cultures found that those who were more extraverted and narcissistic (who had an inflated, unrealistic self-concept) were much more likely to use Facebook than those who did not score high on those personality characteristics. The more narcissistic teenagers were also more likely to update their Facebook status more frequently (Kuo & Tang, 2014; Michikyan, Subrahmanyam, & Dennis, 2014; Ong et al., 2011; Panek, Nardis, & Konrath, 2014; Winter et al., 2014). Other studies suggest that those who report high use of social networking sites tend to be more extraverted, more open to new experiences, lower in self-esteem and socialization skills, less conscientious, and lower in emotional stability than those who report lower levels of usage (Blackhart, Ginette, Fitzpatrick, & Williamson, 2014; Correa, Hinsley, & de Zuniga, 2010; Mehdizadeh, 2010; Papastylianou, 2013; Ross, Orr, Sisic, Arseneault, Simmering, & Orr, 2009; Weiss, 2014; Wilson, Fornasier, & White, 2010). Personality differences among cell phone users have also been found. Research involving teenagers and adults in Australia found that extraverts and those with a strong sense of self-identity spent much more time making calls and changing their ring tones and wallpaper than those scoring lower on these personality characteristics. The studies also found that those who were more neurotic and less conscientious and shy spent more time texting on their phones than those who were less neurotic and more conscientious (Bardi & Brady, 2010; Butt & Phillips, 2008; Walsh, White, Cox, & Young, 2011). Finally, what about the personalities of people who engage in Internet trolling— deliberately hurting, harassing, and upsetting others by posting hateful, inflammatory, and derogatory comments about them. What are they like? The evidence shows that trolls are mostly male with an average age of 29, who, as you might expect, score high in sadism. They take pleasure in degrading others. It makes them feel good (Buckels, Trapnell, & Paulhus, 2014; Lewis, 2014). The Role of Race and Gender in Shaping Personality The personality theorists we cover in this book offer diverse views of the nature of the human personality. Despite their disagreements and divergences, however, they all share certain defining characteristics in common. All are White, of European or American heritage, and almost all are men. There was nothing unusual about that, given the period during which most of these theorists were developing their ideas. At the time, nearly all of the great advances in the arts, philosophy, literature, and the sciences, including the development of the scientific methods, were propounded and promoted by White men of European or American background. In most fields, educational and professional opportunities for women and people of ethnic minority groups were severely limited. In addition, in the field of personality theory, virtually all the patients and subjects the earlier theories were based on were also White. Even the laboratory rats were white. Also, the majority of the patients and subjects were men. Yet, the personality theorists confidently offered theories that were supposed to be valid for all people, regardless of gender, race, or ethnic origin. None of the theorists stated explicitly that his or her views applied only to men or to Whites or to Americans, or that their ideas might not be useful for explaining personality in people of other backgrounds. Although the theorists accepted, to some degree, the importance of social and environmental forces in shaping personality, they tended to ignore or minimize the influence of gender and ethnic background. Copyright 2017 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, in whole or in part. Due to electronic rights, some third party content may be suppressed from the eBook and/or eChapter(s). Editorial review has deemed that any suppressed content does not materially affect the overall learning experience. Cengage Learning reserves the right to remove additional content at any time if subsequent rights restrictions require it. Chapter 1: Personality: What It Is and Why You Should Care 9 We know from our own experiences that our brothers, sisters, and friends were exposed to different childhood influences than we were and that, as a result, they grew up to have different personalities. We also know from research in social psychology that children from different environments—such as a predominantly White Midwestern town, a Los Angeles barrio, an Appalachian mountain village, or an affluent Black suburb—are exposed to vastly different influences. If the world in which people live and the factors that affect their upbringing are so different, then surely their personalities can be expected to differ as a result. They do. We also know that boys and girls are usually reared according to traditional gender stereotypes, and this upbringing also influences personality in different ways. Research has documented many differences between men and women on specific personality factors. For example, one large-scale study of the intensity of emotional awareness and expression compared male and female college undergraduates at two American universities and male and female students at medical schools in the United States and in Germany. The results showed that women from both countries displayed greater emotional complexity and intensity than did men (Barrett, Lane, Sechrest, & Schwartz, 2000). A study of more than 7,000 college students in 16 Islamic nations found that women measured significantly higher in anxiety than men did in 11 of the 16 samples studied (Alansari, 2006). We will see many examples throughout the book of gender and sex differences in personality. The Role of Culture in Shaping Personality The influence of cultural forces on personality is widely recognized in psychology. A specialty area called cross-cultural psychology has fostered a great deal of research supporting the conclusion that personality is formed by both genetic and environmental influences. “Among the most important of the latter are cultural influences” (Triandis & Suh, 2002, p. 135). This was demonstrated in a study of Japanese who emigrated to the United States, compared to those who stayed in Japan. Those who moved became much more “American” in their personalities. They changed in significant ways in response to their changed culture (Gungor, Bornstein, De Leersnyder, Cote, Ceulemans, & Mesquita, 2013). Other research showed that recent Chinese immigrants to Canada demonstrated the same low level of introversion as the Hong Kong Chinese who did not emigrate. However, Chinese immigrants who had lived in Canada at least 10 years and thus had greater exposure to Western culture, scored significantly higher in extraversion than did more recent immigrants or the Hong Kong subjects. Cultural forces had exerted a significant impact on this basic personality characteristic (McCrae, Yi, Trapnell, Bond, & Paulhus, 1998). Anxiety and other negative emotions may also be related to cultural differences. When the experiences of Asian-American students were compared with those of EuropeanAmerican students in a daily diary study, it was found that the Asian Americans reported a far greater number of negative emotions in social situations than the EuropeanAmericans did (Lee, Okazaki, & Yoo, 2006). Western people in general, and Americans, in particular, also exhibit greater optimism and view themselves and their future more positively. They even consider their sports teams, cities, and friends to be superior, when compared to those of Asian cultures (Endo, Heine, & Lehman, 2000). There are even large-scale cultural differences in brain activity and genetic makeup, which have been demonstrated in the field of cultural neuroscience (Azar, 2010). Using measures of brain wave activity, researchers found differences in brain function between Copyright 2017 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, in whole or in part. Due to electronic rights, some third party content may be suppressed from the eBook and/or eChapter(s). Editorial review has deemed that any suppressed content does not materially affect the overall learning experience. Cengage Learning reserves the right to remove additional content at any time if subsequent rights restrictions require it. 10 Chapter 1: Personality: What It Is and Why You Should Care people in Eastern and Western cultures when responding to the same stimuli (Park & Huang, 2010). One study found brain wave activity of Japanese and Americans to differ in reaction to the same visual stimuli; the differences paralleled each culture’s measured level of submissiveness or dominance (Freeman, Rule, & Ambady, 2009). We will see a number of other examples in this section, and throughout the book, of the many ways in which the culture we live in shapes and molds our personalities. Different Cultural Beliefs about Destiny The concept of karma has for centuries shaped the outlook of the people of India and other countries that accept Hinduism or Buddhism. It may be seen as a fatalistic and deterministic view of human nature. The consequences of our present and past actions are believed to determine our destiny or fate, our happiness or unhappiness in the future. In other words, events don’t occur because we make them happen but because they were destined to happen. Thus, in this view, our fortune or misfortune, health or sickness, happiness or unhappiness are preordained and independent of our own actions. You can see how this belief may lead to a passive, resigned personality type, accepting of whatever comes one’s way and not being motivated to take action to change it. Contrast this with a view more typical of American culture that emphasizes free choice and action, and the role of our own personal effort and initiative in bringing about our personal success or failure. Research shows substantial cultural differences between East and West in this notion of fate attribution or destiny (Norenzayan & Lee, 2010). However, there is also evidence that as Eastern cultures such as China modernize and become more Westernized, that cultural belief is reduced (Wong, Shaw, & Ng, 2010). Individualism Individual competitiveness and assertiveness are often seen as undesirable and contrary to Asian cultural standards. Western cultures are typically depicted as the opposite. For example, when college students in Australia were compared with college students in Japan, the Australians were found to emphasize the importance of individuality much more than the Japanese, who were more oriented toward the collective or the group (Kashima, Kokubo, Kashima, Boxall, Yamaguchi, & Macrae, 2004). In another example, an Asian-American job applicant who is a recent immigrant to the United States and not yet fully acculturated to American values and beliefs is likely to score low on a personality test measuring such factors as competitiveness, assertiveness, and self-promotion. This person would probably be judged as deficient—as not measuring up to American standards—and thus unlikely to be offered a job. In an individualistic society, the focus is on personal freedom, choice, and action. In a collectivist society, the focus is on group norms and values, group role expectations, and other cultural constraints on behavior. People in individualistic cultures show greater extraversion, self-esteem, happiness (or subjective well-being), optimism about their future, and a belief in their ability to control and direct it. For example, one massive study of over 400 million people in 63 countries found that the personality trait of individualism was strongly and consistently related to positive well-being (Fischer & Boer, 2011). Genetic differences between people in collectivistic versus individualistic cultures have been linked to lower levels of anxiety and depression in collectivistic cultures and higher levels in individualistic cultures (Chiao & Blizinsky, 2010). College students in the United States scored significantly higher than college students in Japan on measures of self-efficacy—the feeling of being adequate, efficient and competent in coping with life and in exerting control over life events (Morling, Kitayama, & Miyamoto, Copyright 2017 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, in whole or in part. Due to electronic rights, some third party content may be suppressed from the eBook and/or eChapter(s). Editorial review has deemed that any suppressed content does not materially affect the overall learning experience. Cengage Learning reserves the right to remove additional content at any time if subsequent rights restrictions require it. Chapter 1: Personality: What It Is and Why You Should Care 11 2002). College students in Australia were found to be significantly more agreeable, conscientious, optimistic, and satisfied with their lives than students in Singapore (Wong, Lee, Ang, Oei, & Ng, 2009). Other research found differences in subjective well-being between Asian-American students and European-American students at the same university in the United States. The European-American students attained their feeling of well-being by pursuing goals for the purpose of personal satisfaction. The Asian-American students seemed to “attain and maintain their well-being by achieving goals that they pursue to make important others [such as their parents] happy and [to] meet the expectations of others” (Oishi & Diener, 2001, p. 1680). Thus, the motivations and satisfactions of these students and their corresponding images of human nature differed with their cultural backgrounds. In addition, a comparison of Japanese and American college students revealed that the American students were far more likely to use positive terms to describe themselves. The Japanese students were more likely to use negative terms (Kanagawa, Cross, & Markus, 2001). Thus, the degree to which a culture focuses on and encourages individualism has a powerful effect on the personality of its citizens. Child-Rearing Practices The impact on behavior and personality of cultural differences in child-rearing practices is also substantial. In the individualistic culture of the United States, parents tend to be noncoercive, democratic, and permissive in their child-rearing techniques. In collectivist cultures, such as Asian and Arab societies, parental practices tend to be more authoritarian, restrictive, and controlling. Studies of adolescents in several Arab countries showed that they felt a greater connection with their parents than did American adolescents. The researchers noted that Arab adolescents “follow their parents’ directions in all areas of life, such as social behavior, interpersonal relationships, marriage, occupational preference, and political attitudes…. they do not feel that they suffer from their [parents’] authoritarian style and are even satisfied with this way of life” (Dwairy, Achoui, Abouserie, & Farah, 2006, p. 264). The study concluded that these authoritarian parental practices did not adversely affect the mental health and emotional well-being of the Arab teenagers as they would in more liberal Western cultures. Chinese mothers living in Canada were found to be more authoritarian in raising their children than non-Chinese mothers in Canada (Liu & Guo, 2010). Turkish mothers living in Germany who were more assimilated into the German culture emphasized individualistic goals for their children much more than Turkish mothers who were not so assimilated (Durgel, Leyendecker, Yagmurlu, & Harwood, 2009). Clearly, such differences in child-rearing practices and their resulting values will influence the development of different kinds of personalities. Self-Enhancement Self-enhancement is defined as the tendency to promote oneself aggressively and make one conspicuous. The opposite of that, self-effacement, is considered to be more in agreement with the cultural values of Asian societies. This was supported in a laboratory study comparing Canadian and Japanese college students. Self-enhancement was far more prevalent among the Canadian students; self-criticism was significantly more evident among the Japanese students (Heine, Takata, & Lehman, 2000). Similar results were obtained in three additional studies comparing self-ratings and questionnaire responses in collectivist versus individualistic cultures. The subjects in Copyright 2017 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, in whole or in part. Due to electronic rights, some third party content may be suppressed from the eBook and/or eChapter(s). Editorial review has deemed that any suppressed content does not materially affect the overall learning experience. Cengage Learning reserves the right to remove additional content at any time if subsequent rights restrictions require it. 12 Chapter 1: Personality: What It Is and Why You Should Care these instances were Japanese college students compared with American college students, and Chinese high school and college students in Singapore compared with Jewish high school and college students in Israel. The results from both studies showed that those from collectivist cultures (Japan and China) showed significantly greater self-criticism and significantly lower self-enhancement than those from individualistic cultures (the United States and Israel) (Heine & Renshaw, 2002; Kurman, 2001). A study comparing people in the United States, Mexico, Venezuela, and China found that the Chinese demonstrated the strongest tendency toward self-effacement than those in the other cultures (Church et al., 2014). Nordic cultures such as Norway, Sweden, and Denmark provide another example of cultures encouraging self-effacement. The cultural concept of Janteloven enjoins people not to place their own interests above those of their community and to show humility in the presence of others. A comparison of college students in the United States and Norway found that the Americans rated themselves significantly higher than average on positive personality traits and lower than average on negative traits than the Norwegian students did. This tendency to self-enhancement among the U.S. students, which was not found to the same degree among the Norwegian students, appears to be culturally induced, determined by the values taught in the different countries (Silvera & Seger, 2004). Large differences in individualism have also been found in cultures that are not so far apart geographically. One might reasonably expect differences between Eastern cultures such as Japan and Western cultures such as the United States, as we have seen. But differences have also been reported between European cultures, such as Spain and the Netherlands. A comparison using a self-report inventory of people found that the Spanish people were more concerned with matters of honor and family-related values, such as family security, respect for parents, and recognition from others. In contrast, the Dutch people scored much higher on individualistic values such as ambition, capability, and independence (Rodriguez-Mosquera, Manstead, & Fischer, 2000). If you consider yourself to be self-enhancing, take heart. Maybe it’s not so bad. Research in various countries in Europe found that self-enhancers were rated by others as being emotionally stable, socially attractive, and socially influential (Dufner, Denissen, Sediilides, Van Zalk Meeus, & Van Aken, 2013). And finally, a study of American college students found that those high in self-esteem and self-enhancement look for mates who share their own characteristics. In other words, self-enhancers are looking for someone who is as great as they think they are (Brown, Brown, & Kovatch, 2013). A Diversity of Cultures As we have just seen, there have been major advances in exploring a wide range of cultural differences in personality research in recent years. However, it still remains true that much less research has been conducted on personality in African and South American nations than in English-speaking countries, or in many of the countries of Europe and Asia. Also, much of the research that has been conducted among those populations has not been made widely available in English-language sources. Another problem limiting the applicability of cross-cultural personality research is that the majority of studies in personality use American college students as subjects. One of the goals of this book is to cover research results from a more diverse and representative selection of people. The studies you will read about here are from more than 40 different countries, all of which are listed on the inside back cover, and from a variety of age groups, cultures, religions, and ethnic backgrounds. We will not be dealing only with the personalities of White American college students. Copyright 2017 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, in whole or in part. Due to electronic rights, some third party content may be suppressed from the eBook and/or eChapter(s). Editorial review has deemed that any suppressed content does not materially affect the overall learning experience. Cengage Learning reserves the right to remove additional content at any time if subsequent rights restrictions require it. Chapter 1: Personality: What It Is and Why You Should Care 13 LOG ON Race, Ethnicity, and Multicultural Issues The Social Psychology Network provides links to diverse sites related to racial, ethnic, and multicultural issues, especially African, Asian, Hispanic, Jewish, and Native American cultures. Assessing Your Personality To assess something means to measure or evaluate it. The assessment of personality is a major area of application of psychology to a number of real-world concerns. For example, clinical psychologists try to understand the symptoms of their patients or clients by assessing their personalities, by differentiating between normal and abnormal behaviors and feelings. Only by evaluating personality in this way can clinicians diagnose disorders and determine the best course of therapy. School psychologists evaluate the personalities of the students referred to them for treatment in an attempt to uncover the causes of adjustment or learning problems. Industrial/organizational psychologists assess personality to select the best candidate for a particular job. Counseling psychologists measure personality to find the best job for a particular applicant, matching the requirements of the position with the person’s interests and needs. Research psychologists assess the personalities of their subjects in an attempt to account for their behavior in an experiment or to correlate their personality traits with other measurements. No matter what you do in your life and your working career, it is difficult to avoid having your personality assessed in some way at some time. Indeed, much of your success in the workplace will be determined by your performance on various psychological tests. Therefore, it is important that you have some understanding of what they are and how they work. The Concepts of Reliability and Validity reliability The consistency of response to a psychological assessment device. validity The extent to which an assessment device measures what it is intended to measure. The best techniques of personality assessment adhere to the principles of reliability and validity. Reliability Reliability involves the consistency of response to an assessment device. Suppose you took the same test on two different days and received two widely different scores. How would you know which score is the most accurate one? A test like that would not be considered reliable because its results were so inconsistent. No one could depend on that test for an adequate assessment of your personality. It is common to find some slight variation in scores when a test is taken a second time, but if the variation is large, then something is wrong with the test or with the method of scoring it. Validity Validity refers to whether an assessment device measures what it is intended to measure. Does an intelligence test truly measure intelligence? Does a test of anxiety actually evaluate anxiety? If a test does not measure what it claims to, then it is not valid and its results cannot be used to predict behavior. For example, your score on an invalid intelligence test, no matter how high, will be useless for predicting how well you will do in college or in any other situation that requires a high level of intelligence. A personality test that is not valid may provide a totally misleading portrait of your emotional strengths and weaknesses and will be of no value to you or a potential employer. Copyright 2017 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, in whole or in part. Due to electronic rights, some third party content may be suppressed from the eBook and/or eChapter(s). Editorial review has deemed that any suppressed content does not materially affect the overall learning experience. Cengage Learning reserves the right to remove additional content at any time if subsequent rights restrictions require it. 14 Chapter 1: Personality: What It Is and Why You Should Care Methods of Assessment The personality theorists discussed in this book devised different methods for assessing personality that were the most useful for their theories. By applying these methods, they obtained the data on which they based their formulations. Their techniques vary in objectivity, reliability, and validity, and they range from dream interpretation and childhood recollections to computer-administered objective tests. The major approaches to personality assessment are: • • • • • Self-report or objective inventories Projective techniques Clinical interviews Behavioral assessment procedures Thought and experience sampling procedures Self-Report Personality Tests self-report inventory A personality assessment technique in which subjects answer questions about their behaviors and feelings. The self-report inventory or test approach involves asking people to report on themselves by answering questions about their behavior and feelings in various situations. These tests include items dealing with symptoms, attitudes, interests, fears, and values. Test-takers indicate how closely each statement describes themselves, or how much they agree with each item. There are a number of self-report personality tests in use today as we will see in later chapters, but one of the most useful is the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory (MMPI). Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory (MMPI) The MMPI has been translated into more than 140 languages and is the world’s most widely used psychological test (see Butcher, 2010; Cox, Weed, & Butcher, 2009). First published in 1943, the MMPI was revised in 1989 to make the language more contemporary and nonsexist. The latest revision is the MMPI-2-RF (Restructured Form), which appeared in 2008. The MMPI is a true-false test that consists of 567 statements. The test items cover physical and psychological health; political and social attitudes; educational, occupational, family, and marital factors; and neurotic and psychotic behavior tendencies. The test’s clinical scales measure such personality characteristics as gender role, defensiveness, depression, hysteria, paranoia, hypochondriasis, and schizophrenia. Some items can be scored to determine if the test-taker is deliberately faking or careless, or misunderstood the instructions. For example, research has shown that the MMPI-2-RF can successfully distinguish between those who have genuine physical pain and those who are faking it in order to claim disability payments (Crighton, Applegate, Wygant, Granacher, & Ulauf, 2013). The test has also been shown to distinguish between those who are faking symptoms of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and those whose symptoms are genuine (Mason et al., 2013). It has also been found that those who are mentally ill can learn (through online instruction) how to respond on the MMPI so as to hide their symptoms and appear to be mentally healthy (Hartmann & Hartmann, 2014). Examples of the types of statements in the MMPI are shown in Table 1.2. The MMPI-2 is used with adults in research on personality as a diagnostic tool for assessing personality problems, for employee selection, and for vocational and personal counseling. In 1992, the MMPI-A was developed for use with adolescents. The number of questions was decreased from 567 to 478, to reduce the time and effort needed to administer it. Both forms of the test have their shortcomings, however, one of which is length. It takes a lot of time to respond attentively to the large number of items. Some people Copyright 2017 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, in whole or in part. Due to electronic rights, some third party content may be suppressed from the eBook and/or eChapter(s). Editorial review has deemed that any suppressed content does not materially affect the overall learning experience. Cengage Learning reserves the right to remove additional content at any time if subsequent rights restrictions require it. Chapter 1: Personality: What It Is and Why You Should Care TABLE 1.2 15 Simulated items from the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory (MMPI) ANSWER “TRUE” OR “FALSE.” At times I get strong cramps in my intestines. I am often very tense on the job. Sometimes there is a feeling like something is pressing in on my head. I wish I could do over some of the things I have done. I used to like to do the dances in gym class. It distresses me that people have the wrong ideas about me. The things that run through my head sometimes are horrible. There are those out there who want to get me. Sometimes I think so fast I can’t keep up. I give up too easily when discussing things with others. lose interest and motivation long before they finish. Also, some of the items on this and other self-report personality tests deal with highly personal characteristics, which some people consider an invasion of privacy, particularly when being required to take the test to get a job. Nevertheless, despite the length and privacy issues, the MMPI in its various forms is a valid test that discriminates between neurotics and psychotics and between the emotionally healthy and the emotionally disturbed. Thus, it remains a highly valuable diagnostic and research tool. Assessment of Self-Report Inventories Although there are self-report inventories to assess many facets of personality, as we will see in later chapters, the tests are not always appropriate for people whose level of intelligence is below normal, or for those with limited reading skills. Even minor changes in the wording of the questions or the response alternatives on self-report measures can lead to major changes in the results. For example, when adults were asked what they thought was the most important thing for children to learn, 61.5 percent chose the alternative “to think for themselves.” But when adult subjects were asked to supply the answer themselves—when no list of alternatives was provided—only 4.6 percent made that or a similar response (Schwarz, 1999). There is also the tendency for test-takers to give answers that appear to be more socially desirable or acceptable, particularly when they are taking tests as part of a job application. Suppose you were applying for a job you really wanted and were asked this question on a test—“I am often very tense on the job.” Would you answer “yes” to that question? We wouldn’t either. When a group of college students took a self-report test with instructions to make themselves appear as good, or as socially acceptable, as possible, they were more careful with their answers and took longer to complete the test than students who were not deliberately trying to look good (Holtgraves, 2004). Similar results have been shown with other self-report inventories. Most subjects find it easy to give false answers when asked to do so in research studies (McDaniel, Beier, Perkins, Goggins, & Frankel, 2009). Despite these problems, self-report inventories remain the most objective approach to personality assessment. Their greatest advantage is that they are designed to be scored objectively and quickly through automated personality assessment programs, providing a complete diagnostic profile of the test-taker’s responses. Copyright 2017 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, in whole or in part. Due to electronic rights, some third party content may be suppressed from the eBook and/or eChapter(s). Editorial review has deemed that any suppressed content does not materially affect the overall learning experience. Cengage Learning reserves the right to remove additional content at any time if subsequent rights restrictions require it. 16 Chapter 1: Personality: What It Is and Why You Should Care Online Test Administration Self-report inventories, like everything else now, can be taken online. Many employers prefer that job applicants take tests this way as a prescreening method, rather than taking up time and space at the company’s office. The advantages of computerized test administration include the following: • • • • • It is less time-consuming for both the applicant and the organization It is less expensive The scoring is more objective The method is readily accepted by younger members of the workforce It prevents test-takers from looking ahead at questions (which they can do with a traditional paper-and-pencil test), and it prevents them from changing answers already given A sizable body of research has confirmed the usefulness of this approach. No significant differences in responses to most self-report inventories have been found between paper-and-pencil tests and the same tests administered online (see, for example, Chuah, Drasgow, & Roberts, 2006; Clough, 2009; Luce, Winzelberg, Das, Osborne, Bryson, & Taylor, 2007; Naus, Philipp, & Samsi, 2009). It has also been found that most of us are significantly more likely to reveal sensitive, even potentially embarrassing, information when responding online to self-report inventories than to paper-and-pencil tests given in person by a live test administrator. Understandably, many people feel a greater sense of anonymity and privacy when interacting with a computer and so reveal more personal information. Projective Techniques projective test A personality assessment device in which subjects are presumed to project personal needs, fears, and values onto their interpretation or description of an ambiguous stimulus. Clinical psychologists developed projective tests of personality for their work with the emotionally disturbed. Inspired by Sigmund Freud’s emphasis on the importance of the unconscious, projective tests attempt to probe that invisible portion of our personality. The theory underlying projective techniques is that when we are presented with an ambiguous stimulus, like an inkblot or a picture that can be interpreted in more than one way, we will project our innermost needs, fears, and values onto the stimulus when we’re asked to describe it. Because the interpretation of the results of projective tests is so subjective, these tests are not high in reliability or validity. It is not unusual for different people giving the test to form quite different impressions of the same person, based on the results of a projective test. In such a case, the inter-scorer reliability of the test is low. Nevertheless, these tests are widely used for assessment and diagnostic purposes. Two popular projective tests are the Rorschach Inkblot Technique and the Thematic Apperception Test (TAT). Rorschach and His Inkblots The Rorschach was developed in 1921 by the Swiss psychiatrist Hermann Rorschach (1884–1922), who had been fascinated by inkblots since childhood. As a youngster, he had played a popular game called Klecksographie, or Blotto, in which children gave their interpretations of various inkblot designs. Rorschach was known to be so intensely interested in inkblots that as a teenager, he acquired the nickname Klecks, which means, in German, blot of ink. Later, when Rorschach was serving a hospital residency in psychiatry after receiving his M.D., he and a friend played Blotto with patients to pass the time. Rorschach noticed consistent differences between the responses of patients and the responses offered by school children to the same inkblots. In developing his test, Rorschach created his own inkblots simply by dropping blobs of ink on blank paper and folding the paper in half (see Figure 1.1). After trying a variety Copyright 2017 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, in whole or in part. Due to electronic rights, some third party content may be suppressed from the eBook and/or eChapter(s). Editorial review has deemed that any suppressed content does not materially affect the overall learning experience. Cengage Learning reserves the right to remove additional content at any time if subsequent rights restrictions require it. Chapter 1: Personality: What It Is and Why You Should Care 17 FIGURE 1.1 Kovalchuk Oleksandr/Shutterstock.com An inkblot similar to a Rorschach inkblot. of patterns, he settled on 10 blots for the very practical reason that he could not afford to have more than 10 printed. He wrote about his work with inkblots, but the publication was a failure. Few copies were sold, and the few reviews it received were negative. Although the test eventually became immensely popular, Rorschach became depressed and died 9 months after his work was published. Using the Rorschach The inkblot cards (some black, others in color) are shown one at a time, and test-takers are asked to describe what they see. Then the cards are shown a second time, and the psychologist asks specific questions about the earlier answers. The examiner also observes behavior during the testing session, including the test-takers’ gestures, reactions to particular inkblots, and general attitude. Responses can be interpreted in several ways, depending on whether the patient reports seeing movement, human or animal figures, animate or inanimate objects, and partial or whole figures. Attempts have been made to standardize the administration, scoring, and interpretation of the Rorschach. The most successful of these, the Comprehensive System, claims, on the basis of considerable research, to lead to improved reliability and validity (see Exner, 1993). There is no universal agreement about the Rorschach’s usefulness and validity, even with the Comprehensive System for scoring. Some researchers have concluded that there is no scientific basis for the Rorschach; others insist that the test is as valid as any other personality assessment measure. Nevertheless, the Rorschach continues to be a popular assessment technique in personality research and clinical practice. Copyright 2017 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, in whole or in part. Due to electronic rights, some third party content may be suppressed from the eBook and/or eChapter(s). Editorial review has deemed that any suppressed content does not materially affect the overall learning experience. Cengage Learning reserves the right to remove additional content at any time if subsequent rights restrictions require it. 18 Chapter 1: Personality: What It Is and Why You Should Care The Rorschach is also widely used in research in Europe and South America. Overall, validity research is generally more supportive of the MMPI than of the Rorschach. Thus, the MMPI can be used with greater confidence, especially for ethnic minority groups and diverse cultural groups (see, for example, Wood, Garb, Lilienfeld, & Nezworski, 2002). LOG ON Hermann Rorschach and the Rorschach Test Serious information sources about Hermann Rorschach and the Rorschach test. Thematic Apperception Test (TAT) Henry Murray and Christiana Morgan developed the TAT (Morgan & Murray, 1935). The test consists of 19 ambiguous pictures, showing one or more persons, and 1 blank card. The pictures are vague about the events depicted and can be interpreted in different ways. People taking the test are asked to tell a story about the people and objects in the picture, describing what led up to the situation shown, what the people are thinking and feeling, and what the outcome is likely to be. In clinical work, psychologists consider several factors in interpreting these stories, including the kinds of personal relationships involved, the motivations of the characters, and the degree of contact with reality shown by the characters. There are no objective scoring systems for the TAT, and its reliability and validity are low when used for diagnostic purposes. However, the TAT has proven useful for research purposes, and scoring systems have been devised to measure specific aspects of personality, such as the needs for achievement, affiliation, and power. It also continues to be useful in clinical practice. (Gieser & Wyatt-Gieser, 2013). Other Projective Techniques Word association and sentence completion tests are additional projective techniques that psychologists use to assess personality. In the word-association test, a list of words is read one at a time to the subject, who is asked to respond to each with the first word that comes to mind. Response words are analyzed for their commonplace or unusual nature, for their possible indication of emotional tension, and for their relationship to sexual conflicts. Speed of response is considered important. The sentence-completion test also requires verbal responses. Subjects are asked to finish such sentences as “My ambition is …” or “What worries me is …” Interpretation of the responses with both of these approaches can be highly subjective. However, some sentence-completion tests, such as the Rotter Incomplete Sentence Blank, provide for more objective scoring. Clinical Interviews In addition to specific psychological tests used to measure an individual’s personality, assessment often includes clinical interviews. After all, it is reasonable to assume that valuable information can be obtained by talking to the person being evaluated and asking relevant questions about past and present life experiences, social and family relationships, and the problems that led the person to seek psychological help. A wide range of behaviors, feelings, and thoughts can be investigated in the interview, including general appearance, demeanor, and attitude; facial expressions, posture, and gestures; preoccupations; degree of self-insight; and level of contact with reality. Armed with the results of psychological tests like the MMPI, which are usually administered before or during a series of interview sessions, the psychologist can focus Copyright 2017 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, in whole or in part. Due to electronic rights, some third party content may be suppressed from the eBook and/or eChapter(s). Editorial review has deemed that any suppressed content does not materially affect the overall learning experience. Cengage Learning reserves the right to remove additional content at any time if subsequent rights restrictions require it. Chapter 1: Personality: What It Is and Why You Should Care 19 on problems indicated by the test results and explore those areas in detail. Interpretation of interview material is subjective and can be affected by the interviewer’s theoretical orientation and personality. Nevertheless, clinical interviews remain a widely used technique for personality assessment and a useful tool when supplemented by more objective procedures. Behavioral Assessment In the behavioral assessment approach, an observer evaluates a person’s behavior in a given situation. The better the observers know the people being assessed and the more frequently they interact with them, the more accurate their evaluations are likely to be (Connelly & Ones, 2010). Psychologists Arnold Buss and Robert Plomin developed a questionnaire to assess the degree of various temperaments present in twins of the same sex (Buss & Plomin, 1984). The mothers of the twins were asked, on the basis of their observations of their children, to check those items on the questionnaire that best described specific and easily discernible instances of their children’s behavior. Sample items from the questionnaire are listed in Table 1.3. As we noted in the section on clinical interviews, counselors routinely observe their clients’ behavior—considering, for example, facial expressions, nervous gestures, and general appearance—and use that information in formulating their diagnoses. Such observations are less systematic than formal behavioral assessment procedures, but the results can provide valuable insights. Thought and Experience Assessment In the behavioral approach to personality assessment, we saw that specific behavioral actions are monitored by trained observers. In the thought-sampling approach to assessment, a person’s thoughts are recorded systematically to provide a sample over a period of time. Because thoughts are private experiences and cannot be seen by anyone else, the only person who can make this type of observation is the individual whose thoughts are being studied. In this procedure, then, the observer and the person being observed are the same. The thought-sampling assessment procedure is typically used with groups, but it has also been applied to individuals to aid in diagnosis and treatment. A client can be asked …