Psychology Different Styles of Parenting Discussion

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Psychology Different Styles of Parenting Discussion

Nursing homework help

Question Description

Help me study for my Psychology class. I’m stuck and don’t understand.

 

Review the different styles of parenting.
What style of parenting did your parents use? If you were raised by more than one person, did they all use similar parenting styles? Give some evidence to support your claim. How does (or will) your parenting style differ from your parents? How will it be the same?  What variables do you think influenced the parenting style of your parents and the style you plan to (or do) use with your kids?

 

Lifespan Development Lecture Overview 

Part I – Childhood development  Studying Development      Key debates Methods of study Cognitive Development Social-Emotional Development Part II – Adult development Copyright © 2017 R. Wanic. All rights reserved. Studying Development  Developmental Psychology  Is a subfield of psychology that studies age-related changes in behavior and mental processes from prenatal development and birth through late adulthood and death. Copyright © 2017 R. Wanic. All rights reserved. Note that the length of time a stage of development lasts increases as we age. We change on a slower time schedule the older we get. Studying Development: Key Theoretical Debates  Nature vs. Nurture  Developmentalists seek to determine what the relative contribution of our genes (nature) and our environmental experiences (nurture) in our developmental outcomes.  Typically, developmental results are the product of a combination of factors. For example, our genes determine the minimum and maximum height for each of us. But environmental factors like nutrition and exercise influence where within that range we fall. Copyright © 2017 R. Wanic. All rights reserved. Studying Development: Key Theoretical Debates  Continuity vs. Stages  Developmentalists also are interested in whether development takes place at a continuous and gradual pace or whether we go through periods of abrupt change where new abilities arise followed by periods of little change.  A growth spurt in adolescence would be an example of a stage of development – height changes dramatically during a relatively short period of time and then remains stable.  The researcher Piaget studied cognitive development and proposed a stage model. However, recent research suggests that our acquisition of cognitive abilities is continually occurring throughout childhood and Copyright © 2017 R. Wanic. All rights reserved. adulthood. Studying Development: Key Theoretical Debates  Stability vs. Change  Developmentalists seek to understand whether the characteristics we have as children are maintained into adulthood or whether certain characteristics become different as we age.  For example, some babies are described as having a “difficult” temperament. These individuals often grow up to have less satisfying interpersonal relationships in adulthood. This provides some evidence that temperament is stable.  On the other hand, our self-concept (our sense of who we are) changes as we age. Most people come to like themselves better as they move into adulthood. Copyright © 2017 R. Wanic. All rights reserved. Studying Development  Overall, development is studied from an interactionist perspective.  The biopsychosocial model takes into account the effects of biology, social experiences and psychological make-up when exploring an aspect of development. Biological Social Copyright © 2017 R. Wanic. All rights reserved. Psych Studying Development  Research Methods  Because development is interested in differences between age groups as well as changes over time, there are particular methods employed by developmental psychologists that are designed to explore just that. They are  Cross-sectional research and  Longitudinal research Copyright © 2017 R. Wanic. All rights reserved. Studying Development  Cross-sectional Research  A researcher using the cross-sectional design would compare individuals of different ages at the same point in time.  For example, if we were interested in studying how quickly individuals can learn a new language as a function of their age we might want to compare children with adults of various ages. In order to do this, we would select participants to be in each of our age groups at the same time. (E.g., all our data would be collected during the same year).  Copyright © 2017 R. Wanic. All rights reserved. Studying Development  This is a graphic description of cross-sectional research. Note that we are comparing three different age groups at the same time so that the participants in group one, two and three are different people. Copyright © 2017 R. Wanic. All rights reserved. Studying Development  Longitudinal Research  A researcher using the longitudinal design would follow a group of individuals as they themselves age.  For example, if we were interested in personality changes across the life span, we might start with a group of children. Then, ten years later we measure the same group of children when they are now teens. And then, we measure them one more time after another 15 years, when they are now adults. Copyright © 2017 R. Wanic. All rights reserved. Studying Development  This is a graphic description of longitudinal research. Note that we are collecting data from the same participants over a period of many years. Therefore, the participants in each study are the same individuals. Copyright © 2017 R. Wanic. All rights reserved. Studying Development  Research Methods  There are advantages and disadvantages for both research designs.  Let’s look at an example. We conducted a crosssectional study assessing the ability to use new technology. We find that older adults are much worse at learning to use a new technological device compared to young children and teens. Copyright © 2017 R. Wanic. All rights reserved. Studying Development  Research Methods  We want to conclude that the elderly decrease in their ability learn to use new technology of any kind. What might be some reasons why this isn’t true but our study found so anyway?  Children today have much more experience with technology  The elderly have not had as much prior exposure  Therefore, it could be experience, rather than age, that leads to this difference. This is known as a ‘cohort effect’ – when the time period in which you were brought up fosters certain characteristics and abilities that differ from those reared during another time period. Copyright © 2017 R. Wanic. All rights reserved. Studying Development  Research Methods  The advantage of cross-sectional research is that it is relatively quick – we can collect and analyze our data in a couple of months.  Now we’ll take an example of longitudinal research. We are conducting a study on marital satisfaction over time. We started twenty years ago, with a group of 200 newly married couples. We have measured marital satisfaction at time 0 (the year we started), time 1 (ten years later) and time 2 (twenty years later – present day.) Copyright © 2017 R. Wanic. All rights reserved. Studying Development  Research Methods  The results of our study show that at marital satisfaction increased at each measurement period, so that couples are more satisfied with relationships after 20 years together than they were at the start. We want to conclude that length of marriage is positively correlated with marital satisfaction. What might prevent us from doing so?  In longitudinal studies, attrition is a problem. Attrition occurs when a participant who was measured during an earlier session does not participate in the subsequent session. With any longitudinal study, we expect to lose people along the way. Copyright © 2017 R. Wanic. All rights reserved. Studying Development  Research Methods  In our study, we started out with 200 married couples. At the second measurement session, we were able to get in touch with 175 of these couples, 15 of whom were divorced. At the third measurement session, we were able to collect data from 120 of the original couples and none of the 15 who were divorced at time 2.  How could attrition have affected our results? Maybe people didn’t continue to participate in the study after they got divorced. Our sample would then only include couples who did increase in marital satisfaction ignoring the fact that 80 of our couples got divorced at some point over the twenty years and are no longer able to report on marital satisfaction. Our data is skewed. Copyright © 2017 R. Wanic. All rights reserved. Studying Development Copyright © 2017 R. Wanic. All rights reserved. Cognitive Development Now that we know some ways to study development, let’s look at some aspects of cognitive development. Cognitive Development  Piaget  Piaget was an important researcher, one of the first to study infant development.  His research led him to conclude that infants begin at cognitively “primitive” level and progress through stages as they develop increasingly complex cognitive abilities. Copyright © 2017 R. Wanic. All rights reserved. Cognitive Development  Schemas  According to Piaget, schemas are our basic units of intellect. They help us organize information so we can detect patterns in the environment.  It is sometimes helpful to think of a schema as a file folder with information about a topic. For example, if we have a schema of a lawyer, it would include all related information we know about lawyers. Copyright © 2017 R. Wanic. All rights reserved. Cognitive Development  Example “Lawyers” Schema: law books lawyer jokes dishonest Law school briefcases Lawyers “sharks” High fees Copyright © 2017 R. Wanic. All rights reserved. suits court houses Cognitive Development  Modification of Schemas  According to Piaget, as we experience the world and learn new information, we need to adjust our schemas to take these new items into account.  There are two ways we can do this   Assimilation and Accommodation Copyright © 2017 R. Wanic. All rights reserved. Cognitive Development  Modification of Schemas  Assimilation  Occurs when we absorb new information into an existing schema. Let’s look at an example:  Johnny is growing up in a house that has several pets – a dog, two cats, a bird, three fish and a snake. He has learned that these pets are all “animals”. Therefore, his animal schema would look something like this: Copyright © 2017 R. Wanic. All rights reserved. Cognitive Development  Modification of Schemas  Assimilation  Johnny goes with his father to visit the zoo. There he sees an elephant, a lizard, and a polar bear. He asks his dad if they are animals like the ones they have at home. His father tells him yes. Therefore, he will incorporate these new items into his existing animal schema. His modified schema will now look like this: Copyright © 2017 R. Wanic. All rights reserved. Cognitive Development  Modification of Schemas  Accommodation  Occurs when we adjusting our old schemas or develop new ones to better fit with the new information. Let’s look at an example.  Jessica is also with her father at the zoo. She has seen many birds in the trees and sky growing up. She knows that birds have wings, feathers, and beaks, are usually black or brown and that they can fly. Her “bird” schema would look something like this: Copyright © 2017 R. Wanic. All rights reserved. Cognitive Development  Modification of Schemas  Accommodation  While she is at the zoo, Jessica sees a flamingo and an ostrich. Her dad tells her they are birds. Really? She asks. After hearing this, she needs to change her existing bird schema – it now needs to include birds that don’t fly and ones that are pink. Her new ‘bird’ schema would look like this: Copyright © 2017 R. Wanic. All rights reserved. Cognitive Development  Piaget’s research on child cognitive development led him to conclude there were four stages. They are:     Sensorimotor  Birth to 2 years Preoperational  2 to 7 years Concrete Operational  7 to 11 years Formal Operational  11 years and up Copyright © 2017 R. Wanic. All rights reserved. Cognitive Development  Sensorimotor (birth to two)  The sensorimotor stage is characterized by the use of the senses and motor skill to explore objects and the environment.  Young children grab at things and put them in their mouths. This is a means of gathering information. Copyright © 2017 R. Wanic. All rights reserved. Cognitive Development Sensorimotor (birth to two)  A key characteristics in this stage is the lack of object permanence. This essentially means, “out of sight, out of mind.”  Why would “hide and seek” be such a great game for a child in this stage? A toy taken out of the sight of a child in this stage no longer exists to him or her. Objects only exist to the extent that the child in this stage is directly perceiving them. Each time they close their eyes, you actually disappear!  Copyright © 2017 R. Wanic. All rights reserved. Cognitive Development  Sensorimotor (birth to two)  This child lack object permanence. He pays attention to the elephant when he can see it. However, when the elephant is occluded by the sheet of paper, the child no longer has any interest in it.  A child with an understanding of object permanence would reach around the sheet and try to retrieve the toy. Copyright © 2017 R. Wanic. All rights reserved. Cognitive Development  Preoperational (2 to 7)   Children in the preoperational stage start to use language and can think symbolically. A word is a symbol for an object. Knowing the symbol results in knowing that object exists even though it is not in the immediate environment. Copyright © 2017 R. Wanic. All rights reserved. Cognitive Development  Preoperational (2 to 7)  Keys characteristics of children in the preoperational stage are  Lack of operations  Egocentric thinking and  Animistic thinking Copyright © 2017 R. Wanic. All rights reserved. Cognitive Development  Preoperational (2 to 7)  Lacks “operations” – for Piaget, the term ‘operations’ refers to mental reversibility. A child who lacks operations cannot undo an action once it has been done.  One way to test for this is by offering them a lump of clay. You then break the clay up into several pieces. A child in the preoperational stage will say there is more clay now because there are more pieces of clay.  They cannot mentally undo the change from one lump to several to quickly understand that the amount has in fact stayed the same. Is there more clay here here or here? Copyright © 2017 R. Wanic. All rights reserved. Cognitive Development Preoperational (2 to 7)  How is this Calvin and Hobbes cartoon an illustration of a lack of operations? Calvin believes that the bread has been magically turned into a new object – toast. He does not understand that the toast is just the bread now that it has been heated up.  Copyright © 2017 R. Wanic. All rights reserved. Cognitive Development  Preoperational (2 to 7)   Egocentric thinking – Children in the preoperational stage are unable to take on someone else’s point of view. One way to test this is with the three mountains task. Child sits here. The experimenter asks the child “How do I (the experimenter) see this object in front of us?” A preoperational child will respond by picking option 2 because that is the way the child sees it. Egocentric choice Experimenter sits here. Copyright © 2017 R. Wanic. All rights reserved. Correct choice Cognitive Development  Preoperational (2 to 7)  Egocentric thinking  Children in the preoperational stage believe that everyone sees the world as they do. They believe that even their private thoughts are known. Copyright © 2017 R. Wanic. All rights reserved. Cognitive Development  Preoperational (2 to 7)  Animistic thinking – children in the preoperational stage attribute life-like characteristics and intentions to all objects, whether they are alive or inanimate.  For example, bumping into the table they might say, “That table bit me!” Rainy days are because the “sky is crying.” Trees shedding their leaves in fall is “the trees throwing out their old leaves.”   Copyright © 2017 R. Wanic. All rights reserved. Cognitive Development  Concrete Operational (7 to 11)   Once children enter the concrete operational stage, they are able to perform mental operations on concrete objects. One of the classic tests for operations is the ‘conservation’ task. Copyright © 2017 R. Wanic. All rights reserved. Cognitive Development  Concrete Operational (7 to 11) This is how the conservation task is performed: The experimenter starts off with two containers of equal size and shape that are filled with an equal amount of liquid. The child confirms that there is the same amount of liquid in the containers. Copyright © 2017 R. Wanic. All rights reserved. Cognitive Development  Concrete Operational (7 to 11) Next, while the child is watching, the experimenter pours the liquid from one container into another container with a different shape. A child in the preoperational stage who lacks operations would fail this task. Watch the video clips posted online for demonstrations of these tests. The child is then asked again whether one of the containers holds more water. A child who understands conservation knows that the volume is still the same because none has been added or taken away. Copyright © 2017 R. Wanic. All rights reserved. Cognitive Development  Concrete Operational (7 to 11)  Children in the concrete operational stage are not yet able to understand abstract thoughts or theoretical problems. That is why they need to see the water being poured from one container to the other rather than just thinking about the situation in their heads. Copyright © 2017 R. Wanic. All rights reserved. Cognitive Development  Formal Operational (11 and up)  Children who enter the formal operational stage are able to engage in abstract and hypothetical thinking.  This stage is also characterized by adolescent egocentrism, which has two aspects:   Personal fable Imaginary audience Copyright © 2017 R. Wanic. All rights reserved. Cognitive Development  Formal Operational (11 and up)  Adolescent egocentrism  Personal fable – is the belief in one’s own uniqueness. Remember when you were younger and you felt like the only one who thought or experienced things the way you did?  Take this example: Copyright © 2017 R. Wanic. All rights reserved. Cognitive Development  Formal Operational ( 11 and up)  Adolescent egocentrism  Imaginary audience – children in this stage feel that they are the center of other’s thoughts and attentions. Remember how devastating a bad haircut was at this age? Why – because everyone would notice it. Just like everyone will notice if you have a zit or are wearing the same outfit that you did last Friday!! Copyright © 2017 R. Wanic. All rights reserved. Social-Emotional Development In addition to learning new ways of thinking about the world, children also develop socially and emotionally. Social-Emotional Development  Social Development  Attachment    Is an important aspect of early social development. It is defined as A strong affectional bond with special others that endures over time. For the most part, attachment will develop between child and caregiver. Copyright © 2017 R. Wanic. All rights reserved. Social-Emotional Development  Social Development  Feeding v. Contact Comfort  Harlow was a researcher who was interested in what lead to the development of attachment.  He thought there were two elements that the caregiver provides – food and affection. Therefore, attachment could develop because the child knows this individual feeds them or because this individual comforts and holds them. Copyright © 2017 R. Wanic. All rights reserved. Social-Emotional Development  Social Development  Feeding v. Contact Comfort  Harlow conducted a series of studies with baby monkeys to test which was more important for forming attachments.  Some babies were fed by wire mothers and provided a cloth mother for comfort. Watch the three clips online for a summary of what happened. Copyright © 2017 R. Wanic. All rights reserved. Social-Emotional Development  Levels of Attachment   So, the development of attachment is strongly influenced by contact comfort. Not all children develop the same attachment to their caregivers. Mary Ainsworth used her strange situation procedure and identified three types of attachment: Securely attached (65% of kids)  Avoidant (25% of kids)  Anxious/ambivalent (10% of kids)  Copyright © 2017 R. Wanic. All rights reserved. Social-Emotional Development  Parenting Styles (Diana Baumrind)  Permissive  Authoritarian  Authoritative Copyright © 2017 R. Wanic. All rights reserved. Social-Emotional Development  Permissive  Permissive-neglectful     Sets few limits Provides little attention, interest or emotional support Children: poor self-control and social skills Permissive-indulgent   Highly involved but with few demands Children: disrespectful, immature, out of control Copyright © 2017 R. Wanic. All rights reserved. Social-Emotional Development  Authoritarian     Rigid and punitive Unquestioning obedience Children: moody, aggressive, poor communication skills  Authoritative    Tender, caring, attentive Set firm limits and enforce them Children: self-reliant, high achieving, socially competent  Copyright © 2017 R. Wanic. All rights reserved. Study Tip: To avoid confusion, note: Two “Rs” in AuthoRitaRian = “Rigid Ruler!” Two “Ts” in AuthoriTaTive = “Tender Teacher!” What type of parents? Permissive indulgent Copyright © 2017 R. Wanic. All rights reserved. The End.  Make sure to review Chapter 9 in the textbook as well. Copyright © 2017 R. Wanic. All rights reserved. Printed by: rama_mikhail@yahoo.com. Printing is for personal, private use only. No part of this book may be reproduced or transmitted without publisher’s prior permission. Violators will be prosecuted. Printed by: rama_mikhail@yahoo.com. Printing is for personal, private use only. No part of this book may be reproduced or transmitted without publisher’s prior permission. Violators will be prosecuted. Printed by: rama_mikhail@yahoo.com. Printing is for personal, private use only. No part of this book may be reproduced or transmitted without publisher’s prior permission. Violators will be prosecuted. Printed by: rama_mikhail@yahoo.com. Printing is for personal, private use only. No part of this book may be reproduced or transmitted without publisher’s prior permission. Violators will be prosecuted. Printed by: rama_mikhail@yahoo.com. Printing is for personal, private use only. No part of this book may be reproduced or transmitted without publisher’s prior permission. Violators will be prosecuted. Printed by: rama_mikhail@yahoo.com. Printing is for personal, private use only. No part of this book may be reproduced or transmitted without publisher’s prior permission. Violators will be prosecuted. Printed by: rama_mikhail@yahoo.com. Printing is for personal, private use only. No part of this book may be reproduced or transmitted without publisher’s prior permission. Violators will be prosecuted. Printed by: rama_mikhail@yahoo.com. Printing is for personal, private use only. No part of this book may be reproduced or transmitted without publisher’s prior permission. Violators will be prosecuted. Printed by: rama_mikhail@yahoo.com. Printing is for personal, private use only. No part of this book may be reproduced or transmitted without publisher’s prior permission. Violators will be prosecuted. Printed by: rama_mikhail@yahoo.com. Printing is for personal, private use only. No part of this book may be reproduced or transmitted without publisher’s prior permission. Violators will be prosecuted. Printed by: rama_mikhail@yahoo.com. Printing is for personal, private use only. No part of this book may be reproduced or transmitted without publisher’s prior permission. Violators will be prosecuted. Printed by: rama_mikhail@yahoo.com. Printing is for personal, private use only. No part of this book may be reproduced or transmitted without publisher’s prior permission. Violators will be prosecuted. Printed by: rama_mikhail@yahoo.com. Printing is for personal, private use only. No part of this book may be reproduced or transmitted without publisher’s prior permission. Violators will be prosecuted. Printed by: rama_mikhail@yahoo.com. Printing is for personal, private use only. No part of this book may be reproduced or transmitted without publisher’s prior permission. Violators will be prosecuted. Printed by: rama_mikhail@yahoo.com. Printing is for personal, private use only. No part of this book may be reproduced or transmitted without publisher’s prior permission. Violators will be prosecuted. Printed by: rama_mikhail@yahoo.com. Printing is for personal, private use only. No part of this book may be reproduced or transmitted without publisher’s prior permission. Violators will be prosecuted. Printed by: rama_mikhail@yahoo.com. Printing is for personal, private use only. No part of this book may be reproduced or transmitted without publisher’s prior permission. Violators will be prosecuted. Printed by: rama_mikhail@yahoo.com. Printing is for personal, private use only. No part of this book may be reproduced or transmitted without publisher’s prior permission. Violators will be prosecuted. Printed by: rama_mikhail@yahoo.com. Printing is for personal, private use only. No part of this book may be reproduced or transmitted without publisher’s prior permission. Violators will be prosecuted. Printed by: rama_mikhail@yahoo.com. Printing is for personal, private use only. No part of this book may be reproduced or transmitted without publisher’s prior permission. Violators will be prosecuted. Printed by: rama_mikhail@yahoo.com. Printing is for personal, private use only. No part of this book may be reproduced or transmitted without publisher’s prior permission. Violators will be prosecuted. Printed by: rama_mikhail@yahoo.com. Printing is for personal, private use only. No part of this book may be reproduced or transmitted without publisher’s prior permission. Violators will be prosecuted. Printed by: rama_mikhail@yahoo.com. Printing is for personal, private use only. No part of this book may be reproduced or transmitted without publisher’s prior permission. Violators will be prosecuted. Printed by: rama_mikhail@yahoo.com. Printing is for personal, private use only. No part of this book may be reproduced or transmitted without publisher’s prior permission. Violators will be prosecuted. Printed by: rama_mikhail@yahoo.com. Printing is for personal, private use only. No part of this book may be reproduced or transmitted without publisher’s prior permission. Violators will be prosecuted. Printed by: rama_mikhail@yahoo.com. Printing is for personal, private use only. No part of this book may be reproduced or transmitted without publisher’s prior permission. Violators will be prosecuted. Printed by: rama_mikhail@yahoo.com. Printing is for personal, private use only. No part of this book may be reproduced or transmitted without publisher’s prior permission. Violators will be prosecuted. Printed by: rama_mikhail@yahoo.com. Printing is for personal, private use only. No part of this book may be reproduced or transmitted without publisher’s prior permission. Violators will be prosecuted. Printed by: rama_mikhail@yahoo.com. Printing is for personal, private use only. No part of this book may be reproduced or transmitted without publisher’s prior permission. Violators will be prosecuted. Printed by: rama_mikhail@yahoo.com. Printing is for personal, private use only. No part of this book may be reproduced or transmitted without publisher’s prior permission. Violators will be prosecuted. Printed by: rama_mikhail@yahoo.com. Printing is for personal, private use only. No part of this book may be reproduced or transmitted without publisher’s prior permission. Violators will be prosecuted. Printed by: rama_mikhail@yahoo.com. Printing is for personal, private use only. No part of this book may be reproduced or transmitted without publisher’s prior permission. Violators will be prosecuted. Printed by: rama_mikhail@yahoo.com. Printing is for personal, private use only. No part of this book may be reproduced or transmitted without publisher’s prior permission. Violators will be prosecuted. Printed by: rama_mikhail@yahoo.com. Printing is for personal, private use only. No part of this book may be reproduced or transmitted without publisher’s prior permission. Violators will be prosecuted. Printed by: rama_mikhail@yahoo.com. Printing is for personal, private use only. No part of this book may be reproduced or transmitted without publisher’s prior permission. Violators will be prosecuted. Printed by: rama_mikhail@yahoo.com. Printing is for personal, private use only. No part of this book may be reproduced or transmitted without publisher’s prior permission. Violators will be prosecuted. Printed by: rama_mikhail@yahoo.com. Printing is for personal, private use only. No part of this book may be reproduced or transmitted without publisher’s prior permission. Violators will be prosecuted. Printed by: rama_mikhail@yahoo.com. Printing is for personal, private use only. No part of this book may be reproduced or transmitted without publisher’s prior permission. Violators will be prosecuted. Printed by: rama_mikhail@yahoo.com. Printing is for personal, private use only. No part of this book may be reproduced or transmitted without publisher’s prior permission. Violators will be prosecuted. Printed by: rama_mikhail@yahoo.com. Printing is for personal, private use only. No part of this book may be reproduced or transmitted without publisher’s prior permission. Violators will be prosecuted. Printed by: rama_mikhail@yahoo.com. Printing is for personal, private use only. No part of this book may be reproduced or transmitted without publisher’s prior permission. Violators will be prosecuted. Printed by: rama_mikhail@yahoo.com. Printing is for personal, private use only. No part of this book may be reproduced or transmitted without publisher’s prior permission. Violators will be prosecuted. Printed by: rama_mikhail@yahoo.com. Printing is for personal, private use only. No part of this book may be reproduced or transmitted without publisher’s prior permission. Violators will be prosecuted. Printed by: rama_mikhail@yahoo.com. Printing is for personal, private use only. No part of this book may be reproduced or transmitted without publisher’s prior permission. Violators will be prosecuted. Printed by: rama_mikhail@yahoo.com. Printing is for personal, private use only. No part of this book may be reproduced or transmitted without publisher’s prior permission. Violators will be prosecuted. Printed by: rama_mikhail@yahoo.com. Printing is for personal, private use only. No part of this book may be reproduced or transmitted without publisher’s prior permission. Violators will be prosecuted. Printed by: rama_mikhail@yahoo.com. Printing is for personal, private use only. No part of this book may be reproduced or transmitted without publisher’s prior permission. Violators will be prosecuted. Printed by: rama_mikhail@yahoo.com. Printing is for personal, private use only. No part of this book may be reproduced or transmitted without publisher’s prior permission. Violators will be prosecuted. Printed by: rama_mikhail@yahoo.com. Printing is for personal, private use only. No part of this book may be reproduced or transmitted without publisher’s prior permission. Violators will be prosecuted.