MCB3020 Infectious Disease Worksheet

  • Post category:Nursing
  • Reading time:10 mins read
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MCB3020 Infectious Disease Worksheet

Nursing homework help

Description

Hi there, I’d like someone to take my microbiology exam for me. It is a 3000 level course and I’ve attached the study guide so you can get an understanding of the type of material. You would have to log in to my canvas though. It is 1.5 min per question and there will be between 45 and 50 questions. All multiple choice and not proctored. It begins at 12:30 pm tomorrow.

 

EXAM 4 STUDY GUIDE Infectious Diseases, Basic Principles, parts 1 and 2 We reviewed the basic principles of ID, including concepts of transmission, entry and colonization, dissemination and escape. Know the language of these concepts. Understand that disease is damage and what types of damage ID can cause to cells and tissues. Know the specific examples that I discussed. Be able to differentiate opportunistic v obligate pathogens, and what is meant be exogenous and endogenous acquisition Understand the difference between direct and indirect transmission. Know examples. Know the types of portals of entry are used, and know examples. Know colonization significance and mechanisms. Differentiate acute v. latent infection. What is the difference between spread and dissemination, and know example. Infection and Immunity, parts 1, 2 and 3. The overview of infection and immunity emphasized the role of microbiota, and innate defenses against infection. Know symbiotic relationships, and understand what tissues are heavily colonized Know how physical (anatomical) and physiological barriers of immunity work, and discuss specific examples. Understand the organs, tissues and cells of the immune system, and differentiate types of immunity. Know basic mechanisms of innate immunity, and be able to discuss specific examples. Infectious Disease paradigms, parts 3, 4, 5 and 6 Know details of plague history, transmission and the mechanism and role for flea colonization Understand epidemiology and colonizing mechanism of hemorrhagic E. coli. Know what the LEE and T3S is and its role in the colonizing mechanism. Know epidemiology and invasion strategies of Salmonella and Shigella. How does invasion in Salmonella differ from Shigella? Know the basics about toxins: membrane acting and intracellular. Know how PFTs work. Understand the epidemiology of Clostridium infections. Know the pathogenesis of tetanospasmin. Compare and contrast tetanospasmin and botulinum toxin. Understand the epidemiology of cholera and the mechanism of how cholera toxin targets intestinal cells. Basic principles of infectious disease—paradigms 1 Tetanus (Spasms in a soldier with tetanus) Mortality rates of tetanus in infants is 90% 3 (CDC.gov) Riordan 2011 Epidemiology—Clostridium Historically, Clostridium spp. (ex. C. perfringens) were a leading cause of wound infections in soldiers—this has declined with advancements in prompt, adequate medical treatments (prophylaxis and antisepsis) Likewise botulism (C. botulinum) and tetanus (C. tetani) have declined in developed nations to hundreds of cases per year in U.S. (CDC)—public awareness and widespread immunization are credited Globally there are approx. 1,000,000 cases/year for each Riordan 2011 Epidemiology, cont’d Clostridium can be both obligate or opportunistic pathogens— routes of entry include both ingress (ingestion) and parenteral (wounds) mechanisms Most Clostridium spp. are characterized by acute, toxinassociated infections and are non-invasive Riordan 2011 C. tetani and tetanospasmin C. tetani enters its host parenterally through breaks in the skin (ex. puncture)—there it replicates and produces tetanospasmin—death is due to cardiac/pulmonary failure 6 Riordan 2011 Tetanospasmin Tetanospasmin is an AB toxin and its structure-function parallels that of botulinum toxin—but is less toxic (lethal dose is approx. 100 ng) Tetanospasmin interferes with delivery of γ-amino butyric acid (GABA) neurotransmitter to neuromuscular junctions in nerve synapses Riordan 2011 GABA GABA is an inhibitory neurotransmitter, blocking the release of acetylcholine (and muscle contraction) at neuromuscular junctions 8 Riordan 2011 Tetanospasmin Tetanospasmin blocks delivery GABA containing vesicles to the synaptic junction—this leads to uncontrolled release of acetylcholine—resulting in tetanus (spasms, muscle rigidity, convulsion and death) X So botulinum blocks release of acetycholine, while tetanospasmin leads 9 to uncontrolled release of acetylcholine Cholera toxin Riordan 2011 Epidemiology—Cholera Cholera is an epidemic and life-threatening diarrhea characterized by acute diarrheagenic illness, often accompanied by vomiting, and resulting in hypovolemic shock and acidosis It is caused by certain members of the species Vibrio cholerae, which can also cause mild or subclinical infections 11 V. cholerae Cholera is transmitted by the fecal-oral route V. cholerae colonize the small bowel, where they secrete the potent cholera enterotoxin, CT (aka choleragen) CT is an ADP-ribosylating toxin that modulates cAMP production 12 Cholera toxin, CT CT is a prototypic AB5 toxin The A domain (27 KDa) consists of 2 subdomains (A1 and A2), and a homopentameric B domain (57 KDa) The B domain binds up to 5 molecules of ganglioside receptors (GM1) on intestinal epithelial cells Cholera toxin (CT) CT endocytosis is followed by GM1-dependent trafficking to the host endoplasmic reticulum Release of A1 catalytic peptide into the cytosol from ER CT structure (Simon et al 2014) CT trafficking CT binding, endocytosis and A1 translocation CT toxicity Following translocation from the ER, the A1 subdomain of CT monoADP-ribosylates a G protein—this leads to constitutive activation of the G protein G protein then activates adenylate cyclase and cAMP production CT toxicity A1 ribosylates G protein leading to constitutive activation of adenylate cyclase & cAMP production CT toxicity Increased cAMP levels leads to the upregulation of a host transporter, cystic fibrosis conductance regulator (CFTR), increasing active secretion of Cl- Uncontrolled secretion of Cl- into the gut lumen results in osmotic imbalance, & massive water loss from mucosa and vasculature leading to severe diarrhea CT toxicity cAMP activates PKA, which then activates CFTR-dependent secretion of Cl- Concept check #35 Which of the following is true of the process of transcytosis? A. B. C. D. E. It is a mechanism of lateral genetic transfer It moves toxins from inside a pathogen to inside a host cell It is used by macrophage to engulf pathogens Some pathogens use it as a mechanism of cellular invasion It is a part of the SALT immune system 20 Basic principles of infectious disease—paradigms 1 Invasion by Salmonella and Shigella Salmonella—epidemiology Salmonella colonize and invade the small bowel—salmonellosis ranges clinically from gastroenteritis, to life-threatening enteric fevers (incl. typhoid fever) Non-typhoidal salmonellosis (i.e. gastroenteritis) is a worldwide disease of humans and animals 3 Riordan 2011 Invasion of enterocytes Invasion of guinea pig ileal epithelial cells by Typhimurium, TEM 4 (nih.gov) Riordan 2011 Invasion of the gut Various mechanisms for breaching gut epithelia are used by Salmonella ` Induced invasion, transcytosis, and phagocytosis 5 Riordan 2016 Shigella invasion Species of Shigella (dysenteriae, flexneri and sonnei) also invade the intestine causing acute gastroenteritis (dysentery) Dysentery kills an estimated 0.5 to 1 million children (

  Excellent Good Fair Poor
Main Posting 45 (45%) – 50 (50%)

Answers all parts of the discussion question(s) expectations with reflective critical analysis and synthesis of knowledge gained from the course readings for the module and current credible sources.

 

Supported by at least three current, credible sources.

 

Written clearly and concisely with no grammatical or spelling errors and fully adheres to current APA manual writing rules and style.

40 (40%) – 44 (44%)

Responds to the discussion question(s) and is reflective with critical analysis and synthesis of knowledge gained from the course readings for the module.

 

At least 75% of post has exceptional depth and breadth.

 

Supported by at least three credible sources.

 

Written clearly and concisely with one or no grammatical or spelling errors and fully adheres to current APA manual writing rules and style.

35 (35%) – 39 (39%)

Responds to some of the discussion question(s).

 

One or two criteria are not addressed or are superficially addressed.

 

Is somewhat lacking reflection and critical analysis and synthesis.

 

Somewhat represents knowledge gained from the course readings for the module.

 

Post is cited with two credible sources.

 

Written somewhat concisely; may contain more than two spelling or grammatical errors.

 

Contains some APA formatting errors.

0 (0%) – 34 (34%)

Does not respond to the discussion question(s) adequately.

 

Lacks depth or superficially addresses criteria.

 

Lacks reflection and critical analysis and synthesis.

 

Does not represent knowledge gained from the course readings for the module.

 

Contains only one or no credible sources.

 

Not written clearly or concisely.

 

Contains more than two spelling or grammatical errors.

 

Does not adhere to current APA manual writing rules and style.

Main Post: Timeliness 10 (10%) – 10 (10%)

Posts main post by day 3.

0 (0%) – 0 (0%) 0 (0%) – 0 (0%) 0 (0%) – 0 (0%)

Does not post by day 3.

First Response 17 (17%) – 18 (18%)

Response exhibits synthesis, critical thinking, and application to practice settings.

 

Responds fully to questions posed by faculty.

 

Provides clear, concise opinions and ideas that are supported by at least two scholarly sources.

 

Demonstrates synthesis and understanding of learning objectives.

 

Communication is professional and respectful to colleagues.

 

Responses to faculty questions are fully answered, if posed.

 

Response is effectively written in standard, edited English.

15 (15%) – 16 (16%)

Response exhibits critical thinking and application to practice settings.

 

Communication is professional and respectful to colleagues.

 

Responses to faculty questions are answered, if posed.

 

Provides clear, concise opinions and ideas that are supported by two or more credible sources.

 

Response is effectively written in standard, edited English.

13 (13%) – 14 (14%)

Response is on topic and may have some depth.

 

Responses posted in the discussion may lack effective professional communication.

 

Responses to faculty questions are somewhat answered, if posed.

 

Response may lack clear, concise opinions and ideas, and a few or no credible sources are cited.

0 (0%) – 12 (12%)

Response may not be on topic and lacks depth.

 

Responses posted in the discussion lack effective professional communication.

 

Responses to faculty questions are missing.

 

No credible sources are cited.

Second Response 16 (16%) – 17 (17%)

Response exhibits synthesis, critical thinking, and application to practice settings.

 

Responds fully to questions posed by faculty.

 

Provides clear, concise opinions and ideas that are supported by at least two scholarly sources.

 

Demonstrates synthesis and understanding of learning objectives.

 

Communication is professional and respectful to colleagues.

 

Responses to faculty questions are fully answered, if posed.

 

Response is effectively written in standard, edited English.

14 (14%) – 15 (15%)

Response exhibits critical thinking and application to practice settings.

 

Communication is professional and respectful to colleagues.

 

Responses to faculty questions are answered, if posed.

 

Provides clear, concise opinions and ideas that are supported by two or more credible sources.

 

Response is effectively written in standard, edited English.

12 (12%) – 13 (13%)

Response is on topic and may have some depth.

 

Responses posted in the discussion may lack effective professional communication.

 

Responses to faculty questions are somewhat answered, if posed.

 

Response may lack clear, concise opinions and ideas, and a few or no credible sources are cited.

0 (0%) – 11 (11%)

Response may not be on topic and lacks depth.

 

Responses posted in the discussion lack effective professional communication.

 

Responses to faculty questions are missing.

 

No credible sources are cited.

Participation 5 (5%) – 5 (5%)

Meets requirements for participation by posting on three different days.

0 (0%) – 0 (0%) 0 (0%) – 0 (0%) 0 (0%) – 0 (0%)

Does not meet requirements for participation by posting on 3 different days.

Total Points: 100