Diffusion of Innovations

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Diffusion of Innovations


Nursing homework help


Watch the TED TALK on How Great Leaders Inspire Action

Identify one construct from the Diffusion of Innovations and explain how the construct is applied in this TED TALK.

Explain how you would use How Great Leaders Inspire Action to help college students to believe why they should practice not texting while driving. Make sure to include one example from the TED TALK in your explanation.



Main Points Diffusion of Innovations Introduction ✦ The emphasis is on dissemination of an innovation. ✦ Innovation ✦ An idea, object, or practice that is perceived as new by an individual, ✦ Diffusion ✦ The overall spread of an innovation. ✦ The process by which the innovation is communicated through certain channels over time among members of a social system. Examples of Health Innovations refilling stations Introduction ✦Development of DOI ✦ Looked at the rate of adoption of innovations and the characteristics of the innovations and the adopters. organization, or community. ✦ vaccinations ✦ fluoridated water ✦ dental floss ✦ hearing aids ✦ p90x, Insanity ✦ electric toothbrushes ✦ on campus water ✦ Introduction to Diffusion of Innovation ✦ Key Elements of the Diffusion of Innovation ✦ Five Stages of the Innovation Decision Process ✦ Characteristics of Successful Innovations ✦ Characteristics of Individuals ✦ A premise of DOI is people tend to follow the lead of others – People are more likely to adopt an innovation if they observe others experiencing a positive outcome. Invisible Bicycle Helmet ✦ safety belts ✦ blood pressure wrist manometer ✦ female condoms ✦ pedometers ✦ smart phone apps ✦ bicycle helmets* ✦ penile implants Source: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=d7Oud3iGXWY Billboard Water Dispensary Source: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=FWwii1dX4v8 Nanobots in Blood Tiny robots can function like our own white blood cells and destroy bacteria and other pathogens – – Other specific types of nanobots that are being developed are Microbivore, Respirocyte, Clottocyte, and Cellular repair nanobots that can destroy bacteria, carry oxygen, create blood clots for wounds, and repair cells. Background Recent Health Innovations ✦Ora Quick HIV Home Test ✦Flu Vaccine Patch ✦Once placed on the skin, the microneedles pass through the ✦ The OraQuick Test detects antibodies for HIV, not the virus itself. ✦ Gently swipe the test swab along the upper gums once and the lower gums once. Then insert the swab inside the test tube provided and get results in 20 minutes. ✦ Safe and approved by the FDA for use by adults (17 years of age or older), OraQuick is the first and only HIV test that delivers your results with all the comforts and privacy of home. Source: http://www.oraquick.com/What-is-OraQuick/How-Oral-Testing-Works surface skin layers, moisten, and dissolve, delivering flu vaccine to antigen-presenting cells in the skin. ✦These cells then break down antigens and display them to other immune cells. ✦The body mounts an immune response to those antigens, and is thereby prepared to fight off the virus in the future. ✦When the microneedles fully dissolve—within a few minutes— the patch can be removed and discarded. This technology would eventually allow an individual to swallow a pill provided by their doctor and skip their physical because the digestible sensors, that look like regular pills, could perform all the same functions a doctor typically handles in a standard physical and then some. ✦The rate and ultimate extent of adoption depends on: ✦ Two-Step Communication ✦ The Social System ✦ Time ✦ The Innovation-Decision Process ✦ Innovation Characteristics ✦ Adopter Categories ✦ Opinion leaders and Change agents Source: http://www.niaid.nih.gov/topics/Flu/Research/vaccineResearch/Pages/FluShotsNoMore.aspx Background ✦Innovations that have certain and obvious advantages tend to diffuse rapidly and broadly ✦ Internet ✦ Texting ✦ Snapchat ✦ BeachBoard/BlackBoard ✦ Students: consider other examples Levels of Influence ✦At the individual level ✦ adopting a health behavior innovation usually involves lifestyle change. ✦At the organizational level ✦ it may entail starting programs, changing regulations, or altering personnel roles. ✦At a community level ✦ diffusion can include using the media, advancing policies, or starting initiatives. DOI Example of Innovation ✦Addresses how new ideas, products, and social practices spread within an organization, community, or society, or from one society to another. ✦Describes how communication about the characteristics of an innovation influences adoption. ✦Provides a framework for understanding how innovations diffuse and these principles can be used to promote the adoption of healthful innovations. ✦Kony 2012 (Invisible Children), an advocacy organization ✦March 6, 2012 released a youtube video. ✦Goal: Obtain at least 500,000 viewers by 2013. ✦Reached 100 million viewers within 6 days! DOI – – Key Elements Diffusion of Innovation Key Elements ✦Communication channels ✦Social system ✦Time ✦Innovation-decision process ✦ Knowledge, Persuasion, Decision, Implementation, and Confirmation Communication Channels ✦Innovations diffuse through a system via two distinct communication channels. ✦Implication for HP: Most HP programs involve this two-stage communication approach about an innovation. ✦ How To Modify: ✦ Formal Media use mass media for building awareness ✦ Informal Media use interpersonal channels for persuasion. Formal Media Social System ✦Includes ✦How To Modify ✦ extended families ✦ neighbors ✦ workplaces ✦ friends, ✦ religious and recreational ✦ Facilitate adoption from person to person ✦ Use social networks ✦ Use change agents ✦ Use opinion leaders groups Time ✦ The interval between becoming aware of an idea and adopting the idea. ✦ adoption is slow at first, gains speed over time, and then trails off. ✦ How to Modify ✦ Facilitate adoption over time. ✦ The Internet Innovation-Decision Process ✦ Individuals adopt innovations on the basis of their perceptions of the innovation and the relative advantages of adoption. ✦ The complexity of this decision-making process influences the rate and extent of the adoption. Five Stages of the Innovation-Decision Process Five Stages of the Innovation-Decision Process ✦The decision to accept, adopt, and use the intervention is not an instantaneous act, but a process consisting of stages: 1. Knowledge 2. Persuasion 3. Decision 4. Implementation 5. Confirmation Stage 1 – Knowledge ✦One must know about the existence and characteristics of an innovation before it can be adopted. ✦Decision (to adopt) is influenced by 3 types of knowledge: ✦ awareness knowledge (innovation exists) ✦ practical or procedural knowledge (how to use) ✦ principles knowledge (understanding how the innovation works). Stage 2 – Persuasion ✦Attitudes toward the innovation–A requirement for adoption is forming a strong and positive attitude toward the practice or product. ✦ Relative advantages ✦ Social norms (word of mouth, news articles, product reviews) ✦ Expected outcomes Stage 4 – Implementation ✦ Initial adoption or trial of an innovation. ✦ Focus is on improving self-efficacy and skills of adopters. ✦ A change agent (outreach educator) can help facilitate this Stage 3 – Decision ✦ People decide to accept or reject the innovation. ✦ Deciding is a lot like intending. ✦ People are more likely to arrive at an affirmative adoption decision if they can try the innovation without making a full commitment to it. ✦ Example: female condoms vs. IUD, implants, injectables, tubal ligation, vasectomy. Stage 5 – Confirmation ✦(AKA Maintenance or Continuation)-People make a long-term commitment to use the innovation. process. Important Factors in the Diffusion Process Characteristics of Successful Innovations ✦A key premise of the DOI is that some innovations: ✦diffuse quickly and widely; ✦are weak or never adopted; ✦and are adopted and subsequently abandoned. ✦Characteristics of Innovations that Affect Diffusion. ✦ Determines how quickly, and to what extent, an innovation will be adopted and diffused. Twelve Key Characteristics of Successful Innovations Twelve Key Characteristics of Successful Innovations Characteristics that users think about BEFORE adoption 1. Relative Advantage 2. Compatibility 3. Impact on Social Relations 4. Communicability 5. Reversibility 6. Risk and Uncertainty Level Characteristic Definition • 1.Relative Advantage • The advantages of a new idea, product, or practice over the alternatives. Is the innovation better than what it will replace? How to Modify? • • An innovation will be adopted if it is seen as better than the idea, product, or program. Increase the perception that the innovation is advantageous in monetary terms, social terms, or other respect. Twelve Key Characteristics of Successful Innovations Twelve Key Characteristics of Successful Innovations Characteristics that users think about BEFORE adoption Characteristics that users think about BEFORE adoption Characteristic Definition • How consistent the innovation is 2.Compatibility • with current cultural values and practices. Does the innovation fit with the intended audience? How to Modify? • Innovations that are compatible with the • Characteristic Definition • How easily the innovation can 4.Communicability be described and understood. intended users’ values, norms, beliefs, and perceived needs are more readily adopted. Make the idea consistent with the prevalence norms and values. How to Modify? • Be aware of reading levels, culture, language. • Can the innovation be understood clearly and easily? Twelve Key Characteristics of Successful Innovations Twelve Key Characteristics of Successful Innovations Characteristics that users think about BEFORE adoption Characteristics that users think about BEFORE adoption Characteristic 5.Reversibility 7. Trialability 8. Complexibility 9. Time 10.Commitment 11.Modifiability 12.Observability Definition • • Users must perceive they can discontinue use of the innovation when they desire. Can the innovation be reversed or discontinued easily? How to Modify? •Make innovations reversible. Characteristic 6.Risk and Uncertainty Level Definition • Users can be assured that the • product or practice is low risk but effective. Can the innovation be adopted with minimal risk and uncertainty? How to Modify? • Minimize perception of risks associated with the innovation. • EX: Needle Free Injections Twelve Key Characteristics of Successful Innovations Twelve Key Characteristics of Successful Innovations Characteristics that users think about BEFORE adoption Characteristics that users think about DURING adoption Characteristic Definition • The ability of users to try the 7.Trialability • product or practice before deciding to adopt it. Can the innovation be tried before making the decision to adopt? How to Modify? • Provide an opportunity to try the idea, Characteristic Definition • 8.Complexibility practice, or product either in small units or in total. • How easy the innovation is to adopt and use. Is the innovation too complicated to use or install? How to Modify? • • • Innovations perceived as easy to use are more likely to be adopted. Simplify the idea, practice, or product. Innovations perceived as easy to use are more likely to be adopted versus complex innovations. Twelve Key Characteristics of Successful Innovations Twelve Key Characteristics of Successful Innovations Characteristics that users think about DURING adoption Characteristics that users think about AFTER adoption Characteristic Definition • The amount of time required to 9.Time adopt and use the innovation. How to Modify? • Minimize costs associated with innovation. • Can the innovation be adopted with Characteristic 11.Modifiability Definition • • a minimal investment of time? The extent to which the adopter can adapt, refine, or modify the innovation to suit his/her needs. Can the innovation be modified and updated over time? How to Modify? • Allow for modification(s) by the user. www.sotheycanknow.org/inform Twelve Key Characteristics of Successful Innovations Characteristics that users think about AFTER adoption Characteristic 12.Observability Definition • The ability of users and others to • How to Modify? •Easily observable innovations are more see evidence of the utility of the likely to be adopted than those that are not innovation. easily observable. Are the results of the innovation observable and easily measurable? Characteristics of Individuals Characteristics of Individuals ✦If one thinks of a health promotion program as an innovation, the theory describes a pattern the target population will follow in adopting the program. ✦The process of innovation by adoption by individuals is a normal, bell-shaped distribution, with five adopter categories. Innovators ✦Represents