Cuyamaca College Physiology Digestive System Worksheet

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Cuyamaca College Physiology Digestive System Worksheet

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Physiology Spring 2020, Professor Fontaine Lecture 22 Study Guide: Chapter 16 The Digestive System 1 (p 565 – 597) Fill in the blanks in charts or sentences, and answer the questions as you read to prepare for class. Completion of the study guides will count towards participation points. 1. What is the primary function of the gastrointestinal system? 2. What are the four basic digestive processes? 1) 2) 3) 4) 3. How are the following macronutrients broken down in the process of digestion: Chemical name Common name/description examples/what it is found in Monosaccharides Polyscaccaride Glycogen Indigestable dietary polysaccharides Indigestable dietary polysaccharides 4. List the accessory digestive organs and their function 1. 2. 3. 5. Why are these organs considered exocrine organs? Page 1 of 12 6. List the organs in the digestive tract in the order that nutrients would naturally flow through 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 7. Layers of the digestive tract Components Function Mucosa Contains Exocrine gland cells for the secretion of digestive juices and endocrine gland cells for the secretion of blood Bourne GI hormones epithelial cells specialized for absorbing nutrients Thin middle layer of connective tissue on which the epithelium rests Space outermost layer of smooth muscle Submucosa (left intentionally blank) Thick layer of connective tissue that provides the digestive tract with distensibility and elasticity Musculares Externa (left intentionally blank) Major smooth muscle coat of the digestive tube Serosa Inner circular layer Contraction of these fibers decreases the diameter of the tube Outer longitudinal layer Contraction of these fibers decreases the length of the tube Secretes watery, slippery fluid (serous fluid) that lubricates and prevents friction between he digestive organs and the surrounding viscera Page 2 of 12 8. What are the fours ways the digestive function is regulate? Regulatory mode Type of activity Function Autonomous smooth muscle function Intrinsic nerve plexus Submucosal plexus Myenteric plexus Extrinsic nerves (left intentionally blank) Nerve fibers from both branches of the autonomic nervous system that originate outside the digestive tract GI hormones Produced by special endocrine cells tucked within the mucosa of certain regions of the GI tract (left intentionally blank) 9. What are the three types of sensory receptors that respond to local changes in the GI tract 1. 2. 3. 10. Where is the entry to the digestive tract? 11. What is the palate and what is its function? 12. What is the uvula and what is its function? 13. What is the tongue and what is its function? 14. What is the first step in the digestive process? 15. What is the hardest structure in the body? 16. What are the functions of chewing? 1. 2. 3. Page 3 of 12 17. What are the functions of saliva? 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 18. How does the autonomic nervous system effect saliva production? 19. Fill in the figure on swallowing: Page 4 of 12 20. Define the process of swallowing and name the two phases: 21. What is the sphincter located at the upper esophagus called? 22. What is the sphincter located at the the place where the esophagus meets the stomach called? 23. Fill in the figure on the anatomy of the stomach: Page 5 of 12 24. What are the three main functions of the stomach? 1. 2. 3. 25. What are the four aspects of gastric motility? 1. 2. 3. 4. 26. Fill in the table on the facts regulating gastric motility and emptying Location Factors Mode of regulation Effects on gastric motility and emptying Within the stomach Within the duodenum Outside the digestive system Page 6 of 12 27. Fill in the table on stomach mucosa and the gastric glands Type of secretory cell Product secreted Stimuli for secretion Functions of secretary product Exocrine cells: Mucous cells Chief cells Parietal cells (left intentionally blank) Endocrine/paracrine cells Enterochromaffin-like (ECL) cells G cells D cells 28. Fill in the diagram on the stimulation of gastric secretion (p 586, Table 16-4) Phase Stimuli Excitatory mechanism for enhancing gastric secretion Page 7 of 12 29. Fill in the diagram on the inhibition of gastric secretion (p 587, Table 16-5) Region Stimuli Inhibitory mechanism for gastric secretion 30. How is the tissue of the stomach itself protected from its own secretions? 31. What is the pancreas and what are its two main functions? 32. List the pancreatic exocrine secretions and their function Exocrine secretion Inactive form Active form (what activates it) Substrate Proteolytic enzymes Trypsinogen Trypsin (enteropeptidase) Peptide linkages Chymotrypsinogen Chymotrypsin (trypsin) Peptide linkages Procarboxypeptidase Carboxypeptidase (trypsin) Peptide linkages Pancreatic amylase (this section left intentionally blank) Carbohydrates Pancreatic lipase Dietary triglycerides Aqueous alkaline secretion Neutralizing acidic chyme and making a slightly alkaline environment Page 8 of 12 33. Fill in the figure on the hormonal control of pancreatic exocrine secretion: (a) Control of pancreatic aqueous NaHCO3 – secretion (b) Control of pancreatic digestive enzyme secretion 34. List the functions of the liver: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. Page 9 of 12 35. Fill in the figure on the blood flow to the liver: The liver receives blood from two sources: 1a: Liver 1b: 2: 36. What is the common bile duct and what is its purpose? Page 10 of 12 37. Fill in the figure on the anatomy of the liver: (b) Arrangement of vessels in a hepatic © Cengage Learning; photo: M.I. Walker/ 38. What is the gall bladder and what is its function? 39. What are bile salts and what are their function, how do they contribute to dietary fat digestion? Page 11 of 12 40. Fill in the figure in the enterohepatic circulation of bile salts Page 12 of 12

  Excellent Good Fair Poor
Main Posting 45 (45%) – 50 (50%)

Answers all parts of the discussion question(s) expectations with reflective critical analysis and synthesis of knowledge gained from the course readings for the module and current credible sources.

 

Supported by at least three current, credible sources.

 

Written clearly and concisely with no grammatical or spelling errors and fully adheres to current APA manual writing rules and style.

40 (40%) – 44 (44%)

Responds to the discussion question(s) and is reflective with critical analysis and synthesis of knowledge gained from the course readings for the module.

 

At least 75% of post has exceptional depth and breadth.

 

Supported by at least three credible sources.

 

Written clearly and concisely with one or no grammatical or spelling errors and fully adheres to current APA manual writing rules and style.

35 (35%) – 39 (39%)

Responds to some of the discussion question(s).

 

One or two criteria are not addressed or are superficially addressed.

 

Is somewhat lacking reflection and critical analysis and synthesis.

 

Somewhat represents knowledge gained from the course readings for the module.

 

Post is cited with two credible sources.

 

Written somewhat concisely; may contain more than two spelling or grammatical errors.

 

Contains some APA formatting errors.

0 (0%) – 34 (34%)

Does not respond to the discussion question(s) adequately.

 

Lacks depth or superficially addresses criteria.

 

Lacks reflection and critical analysis and synthesis.

 

Does not represent knowledge gained from the course readings for the module.

 

Contains only one or no credible sources.

 

Not written clearly or concisely.

 

Contains more than two spelling or grammatical errors.

 

Does not adhere to current APA manual writing rules and style.

Main Post: Timeliness 10 (10%) – 10 (10%)

Posts main post by day 3.

0 (0%) – 0 (0%) 0 (0%) – 0 (0%) 0 (0%) – 0 (0%)

Does not post by day 3.

First Response 17 (17%) – 18 (18%)

Response exhibits synthesis, critical thinking, and application to practice settings.

 

Responds fully to questions posed by faculty.

 

Provides clear, concise opinions and ideas that are supported by at least two scholarly sources.

 

Demonstrates synthesis and understanding of learning objectives.

 

Communication is professional and respectful to colleagues.

 

Responses to faculty questions are fully answered, if posed.

 

Response is effectively written in standard, edited English.

15 (15%) – 16 (16%)

Response exhibits critical thinking and application to practice settings.

 

Communication is professional and respectful to colleagues.

 

Responses to faculty questions are answered, if posed.

 

Provides clear, concise opinions and ideas that are supported by two or more credible sources.

 

Response is effectively written in standard, edited English.

13 (13%) – 14 (14%)

Response is on topic and may have some depth.

 

Responses posted in the discussion may lack effective professional communication.

 

Responses to faculty questions are somewhat answered, if posed.

 

Response may lack clear, concise opinions and ideas, and a few or no credible sources are cited.

0 (0%) – 12 (12%)

Response may not be on topic and lacks depth.

 

Responses posted in the discussion lack effective professional communication.

 

Responses to faculty questions are missing.

 

No credible sources are cited.

Second Response 16 (16%) – 17 (17%)

Response exhibits synthesis, critical thinking, and application to practice settings.

 

Responds fully to questions posed by faculty.

 

Provides clear, concise opinions and ideas that are supported by at least two scholarly sources.

 

Demonstrates synthesis and understanding of learning objectives.

 

Communication is professional and respectful to colleagues.

 

Responses to faculty questions are fully answered, if posed.

 

Response is effectively written in standard, edited English.

14 (14%) – 15 (15%)

Response exhibits critical thinking and application to practice settings.

 

Communication is professional and respectful to colleagues.

 

Responses to faculty questions are answered, if posed.

 

Provides clear, concise opinions and ideas that are supported by two or more credible sources.

 

Response is effectively written in standard, edited English.

12 (12%) – 13 (13%)

Response is on topic and may have some depth.

 

Responses posted in the discussion may lack effective professional communication.

 

Responses to faculty questions are somewhat answered, if posed.

 

Response may lack clear, concise opinions and ideas, and a few or no credible sources are cited.

0 (0%) – 11 (11%)

Response may not be on topic and lacks depth.

 

Responses posted in the discussion lack effective professional communication.

 

Responses to faculty questions are missing.

 

No credible sources are cited.

Participation 5 (5%) – 5 (5%)

Meets requirements for participation by posting on three different days.

0 (0%) – 0 (0%) 0 (0%) – 0 (0%) 0 (0%) – 0 (0%)

Does not meet requirements for participation by posting on 3 different days.

Total Points: 100