BIO 130 Cuyamaca College Introduction to Enzyme Reactions Questions

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BIO 130 Cuyamaca College Introduction to Enzyme Reactions Questions

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Two cells result Four cells result Increases genetic variation of cells One division process Two division processes DNA replication occurs in Interphase Produces gametes Produces somatic cells Occurs in eukaryotic cells Occurs in prokaryotic cells Somatic cells Reproductive cells Crossing over and recombination Produces genetically identical cells sexual reproduction Homologous chromosomes pair sister chromatids separate in anaphase Asexual reproduction Chromatin condenses into visible structures Haploid Diploid Metaphase Telophase Prophase Directions: Place each word or phrase in the list on the left into either the circle for Mitosis or Meiosis or if appropriate in the intersection of the two circles. Mitosis Tw Meiosis Both Study Guide – Meiosis 1) In humans how is the gender of the child determined? 2) What are the 2 important sources of genetic variation that occur in meiosis, and which phases do they take place in? Describe these events. 3) As you did with mitosis in the study guide for the previous chapter, list the phases of mitosis on the following pages. Draw what is happening to the cell at each phase in the blank diagram. Also include a brief description of what is happening at each stage. What is the starting cell called? ______________________ What are the four new cells called? _____________________ What kind of cell did you start with in meiosis? What kind of cells did you end up with after meiosis? Haploid or diploid Haploid or diploid Are the new cells genetically identical to each other? ____________ Are the new cells genetically identical to the parent? _____________ Go to Next Page 4) Describe the events that take place during each phase of meiosis. Interphase: Meiosis I: Prophase I: Metaphase I: Anaphase I: Telophase I: Meiosis II: Prophase II: Metaphase II: Anaphase II: Telophase II: 5) At which phase do the cells become haploid? 6) Why are they haploid? Cell Cycle and Mitosis Review Sheet (20pts) 1) Describe the events occurring at each phase of interphase. 2) Describe how cytokinesis in plant cells is different than cytokinesis in animal cells. 3) If a cancerous tumor is going to start growing there are at least two major failures that occur in the cell. What are they and why is this important for the cell. 4) Describe binary fission. Also identify at least one aspect of binary fission that an antibiotic might target to prevent bacterial replication. 5) Phases of mitosis: What is the starting cell called?______________________ What are the two new cells called?__________________ Are these cells genetically identical to each other? ______________________ What kind of cell did you start with in mitosis? Haploid or diploid What kind of cells did you end up with after mitosis? Haploid or diploid Describe what happens at each stage of mitosis Prophase Metaphase Anaphase Telophase Skill Check Worksheet Exercise 9: Introduction to Enzyme Reactions NAME_____________________ Lab Section______________ Activity 1: Determining the Reaction Rate in the Presence or Absence of Cellobiase Data Table 1: Comparison of Reaction Cuvettes to Standard Cuvettes. Time (minutes) Cuvette 0 8 1 2 4 6 8 START END E1 E2 E3 E4 E5 Standard that is Most Similar S1 S1 S2 S3 S4 S5 S5 Amount of p-nitrophenol (nmol) Cuvettes after mixing enzyme sample with stop solution Calculation of Initial Rate of Product Formation (with enzyme present) Calculation of rate of Product Formation with no enzyme present Page 1 Skill Check Ex.9: Introduction to Enzyme Reactions Activity 1 Questions 1. Describe any changes you observed in the enzyme reaction and control reaction conical tubes during the time that the reaction was occurring? 2. What happened to the solution in each cuvette after you added the enzyme/substrate mixture to the stop solution that was in the cuvette? 3. Describe the amount of product produced in the enzyme-catalyzed reaction compared to the control where no enzyme was added. 4. If you took another time point at 15 minutes, do you think more product would be produced than at 8 minutes? Explain your answer. 5. Is the rate of product formation constant over time? (Hint: Is the slope of the line constant or does it change over time?) Page 2 Skill Check Ex.9: Introduction to Enzyme Reactions BE SURE TO ATTACH YOUR GRAPH FOR THIS ACTIVITY TO THE SKILL CHECK WORKSHEET WHEN YOU TURN IT IN! Activity 2: Determining Effects of Temperature on Cellobiase Activity Data Table 2: Determination of ρ-nitrophenol produced at three different temperatures based on ρ-nitrophenol standards Temperature Standard that is most similar 0C Room temp 37C S2 S3 S5 Amount of ρ-Nitrophenol Produced (nmol) BE SURE TO ATTACH YOUR GRAPH FOR THIS ACTIVITY TO THE SKILL CHECK WORKSHEET WHEN YOU TURN IT IN! At what temperature does this enzyme work best? Explain how you know this. Why do chemical reactions occur faster at higher temperatures? Is that true for all enzymes, and unlimited temperature values? Why do most enzymatic reactions slow down at extremely high temperatures? Activity 3: Determining Effects of pH on Cellobiase Activity Data Table 3: Determination of ρ-nitrophenol produced at three different pH’s based on pnitrophenol standards Page 3 Skill Check Ex.9: Introduction to Enzyme Reactions pH 5.0 6.3 8.6 Standard that is most similar S3 S2 S1 Amount of p-Ntrophenol Produced (nmol) Activity 3 Questions a. At what pH does this enzyme work best? Explain how you know. b. Why do most enzymatic reactions slow down at extremely high or low pH values? c. In what type of environment might an organism that produces this enzyme live? Explain your reasoning Activity 4: Summary ______________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________ Page 4 Skill Check Ex.9: Introduction to Enzyme Reactions ______________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________ Page 5 Skill Check Ex.9: Introduction to Enzyme Reactions ______________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________ Page 6 Skill Check Ex.9: Introduction to Enzyme Reactions Page 7 Skill Check Ex.9: Introduction to Enzyme Reactions

  Excellent Good Fair Poor
Main Posting 45 (45%) – 50 (50%)

Answers all parts of the discussion question(s) expectations with reflective critical analysis and synthesis of knowledge gained from the course readings for the module and current credible sources.

 

Supported by at least three current, credible sources.

 

Written clearly and concisely with no grammatical or spelling errors and fully adheres to current APA manual writing rules and style.

40 (40%) – 44 (44%)

Responds to the discussion question(s) and is reflective with critical analysis and synthesis of knowledge gained from the course readings for the module.

 

At least 75% of post has exceptional depth and breadth.

 

Supported by at least three credible sources.

 

Written clearly and concisely with one or no grammatical or spelling errors and fully adheres to current APA manual writing rules and style.

35 (35%) – 39 (39%)

Responds to some of the discussion question(s).

 

One or two criteria are not addressed or are superficially addressed.

 

Is somewhat lacking reflection and critical analysis and synthesis.

 

Somewhat represents knowledge gained from the course readings for the module.

 

Post is cited with two credible sources.

 

Written somewhat concisely; may contain more than two spelling or grammatical errors.

 

Contains some APA formatting errors.

0 (0%) – 34 (34%)

Does not respond to the discussion question(s) adequately.

 

Lacks depth or superficially addresses criteria.

 

Lacks reflection and critical analysis and synthesis.

 

Does not represent knowledge gained from the course readings for the module.

 

Contains only one or no credible sources.

 

Not written clearly or concisely.

 

Contains more than two spelling or grammatical errors.

 

Does not adhere to current APA manual writing rules and style.

Main Post: Timeliness 10 (10%) – 10 (10%)

Posts main post by day 3.

0 (0%) – 0 (0%) 0 (0%) – 0 (0%) 0 (0%) – 0 (0%)

Does not post by day 3.

First Response 17 (17%) – 18 (18%)

Response exhibits synthesis, critical thinking, and application to practice settings.

 

Responds fully to questions posed by faculty.

 

Provides clear, concise opinions and ideas that are supported by at least two scholarly sources.

 

Demonstrates synthesis and understanding of learning objectives.

 

Communication is professional and respectful to colleagues.

 

Responses to faculty questions are fully answered, if posed.

 

Response is effectively written in standard, edited English.

15 (15%) – 16 (16%)

Response exhibits critical thinking and application to practice settings.

 

Communication is professional and respectful to colleagues.

 

Responses to faculty questions are answered, if posed.

 

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Response is effectively written in standard, edited English.

13 (13%) – 14 (14%)

Response is on topic and may have some depth.

 

Responses posted in the discussion may lack effective professional communication.

 

Responses to faculty questions are somewhat answered, if posed.

 

Response may lack clear, concise opinions and ideas, and a few or no credible sources are cited.

0 (0%) – 12 (12%)

Response may not be on topic and lacks depth.

 

Responses posted in the discussion lack effective professional communication.

 

Responses to faculty questions are missing.

 

No credible sources are cited.

Second Response 16 (16%) – 17 (17%)

Response exhibits synthesis, critical thinking, and application to practice settings.

 

Responds fully to questions posed by faculty.

 

Provides clear, concise opinions and ideas that are supported by at least two scholarly sources.

 

Demonstrates synthesis and understanding of learning objectives.

 

Communication is professional and respectful to colleagues.

 

Responses to faculty questions are fully answered, if posed.

 

Response is effectively written in standard, edited English.

14 (14%) – 15 (15%)

Response exhibits critical thinking and application to practice settings.

 

Communication is professional and respectful to colleagues.

 

Responses to faculty questions are answered, if posed.

 

Provides clear, concise opinions and ideas that are supported by two or more credible sources.

 

Response is effectively written in standard, edited English.

12 (12%) – 13 (13%)

Response is on topic and may have some depth.

 

Responses posted in the discussion may lack effective professional communication.

 

Responses to faculty questions are somewhat answered, if posed.

 

Response may lack clear, concise opinions and ideas, and a few or no credible sources are cited.

0 (0%) – 11 (11%)

Response may not be on topic and lacks depth.

 

Responses posted in the discussion lack effective professional communication.

 

Responses to faculty questions are missing.

 

No credible sources are cited.

Participation 5 (5%) – 5 (5%)

Meets requirements for participation by posting on three different days.

0 (0%) – 0 (0%) 0 (0%) – 0 (0%) 0 (0%) – 0 (0%)

Does not meet requirements for participation by posting on 3 different days.

Total Points: 100